The Department of Internal Medicine is the largest department at Aga Khan University. Our Department is comprised of multiple sub-specialties with diverse faculty trained both locally and internationally. Our faculty, residents and staff at Aga Khan University, Nairobi are committed to ensuring top-notch patient-centered health care and patient safety, excellence in education and dedication to cutting-edge research.

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Submissions from 2021

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The Contribution of Dysphagia to Acute Stroke Morbidity and Mortality in Nigeria: A Prospective Study, O O. Olajide, Philip Adebayo, F T. Taiwo, M O. Owolabi, and A Ogunniyi

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Harnessing social media in mental health practice in Kenya: a community case study report, Linnet Ongeri, Gathoni Mbugua, Frank Njenga, Anna Nguithi, Jacqueline Anundo, Maryann Mugane, Zawadi Kimari, Loice Wanjiru Cushny Kaigwa, and Lukoye Atwoli

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Hepatic schistosomiasis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and health related quality of life measurements from the Albert Nile Basin, Christopher Opio, Francis Kazibwe, Lalitha Rejani, Narcis B. Kabatereine, and Ponsiano Ocama

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Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 Pneumonia, Carlos Salama, Jian Han, Linda Yau, William G. Reiss, Benjamin Kramer, Jeffrey D. Neidhart, Gerard J. Criner, Emma Kaplan‑Lewis, Rachel Baden, and Reena Shah

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Occult hepatitis B virus infection in a Kenyan cohort of HIV infected anti-retroviral therapy naïve adults, Adil Salyani, Jasmit Shah, Rodney Adam, George Otieno, Evelyn Mbugua, and Reena Shah

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Frequency and factors associated with post-stroke seizures in a large multicenter study in West Africa, Fred S. Sarfo, Joshua Akinyemi, Albert Akpalu, Kolawole Wahab, Joseph Yaria, Oladimeji Adebayo, Morenike Komolafe, Reginald Obiako, Lukman Owolabi, Godwin O. saigbovo, Carolyn Jenkins, Yaw Mensah, Godwin Ogbole, Benedict Calys Tagoe, Philip Adebayo, Lambert Appiah, Arti Singhc, Adekunle Fakunle, and Mayowa O. Owolabi

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Risk Factor Characterization of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Among West Africans, Fred S. Sarfo, Bruce Ovbiagele, Onoja Akpa, Albert Akpalu, Kolawole Wahab, Reginald Obiako, Philip Adebayo, Morenikeji Komolafe, Lukman Owolabi, and Godwin Ogbole

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Mental health disorders among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional survey from three major hospitals in Kenya, Jasmit Shah, Aliza Monroe-Wise, Zohray Talib, Alphonce Nabiswa, Mohammed Said, Abdulaziz Abeid, Sood Mohamed, Mohamed Ali Mohamed, and Sayed Karar

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Hepatitis C virus in sub-Saharan Africa: a long road to elimination, Rajiv Shah, Adwoah Agyei-Nkansah, Francis Alikah, Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Yorou Chabi Orou Bagou, Abdirahman Dhiblawe, Deborah Ehichioya, Peter John Finch, Leolin Katsidzira, and Christopher Opio

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Delivery of Difficult News Among Residents at a Tertiary Hospital In Kenya Using a Short Training Video (UNMASKES), Karishma Sharma, Jasmit Shah, and Sayed Karar

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Collet-Sicard syndrome due to concurrent extramedullary intracranial plasmacytoma and jugular venous sinus thrombosis in multiple myeloma, Dilraj Sokhi, Caroline Wangui Mithi, Farah Ebrahim, Adil Salyani, Sheila Waa, and Riyat Malkit

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Cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder from the East Africa region, highlighting challenges in diagnostics and healthcare access, Dilraj Sokhi, Adil Suleiman, Soraiya Manji, Juzar Hooker, and Peter Mativo

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Heidenhain Variant of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: First Reported Case from East Africa, Dilraj Sokhi, Fazal Yakub, Karishma Sharma, Sheila Was, and Peter Mativo

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Prevalence and factors associated with comorbid diabetes and depression among patients attending a private hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, Alamin Suleiman, Njeri Nyanja, Anthony Ngugi, and Nancy Kunyiha

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The State of Cardiac Electrophysiology in Africa: Ongoing Efforts and Future Directions, Muzahir H. Tayebjee, Jeilan Mohamed, and Aime Bonny

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Real-world challenges for patients with breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: a retrospective observational study of access to care in Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria, Majid Twahir, Razaq Oyesegun, Joel Yarney, Andrew Gachii, Clement Edusa, Chukwumere Nwogu, and Gitangu Mangutha

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Cost-Effectiveness of Care Environments for Improving the Mental Health of Orphaned and Separated Children and Adolescents in Kenya, Marta Wilson-Barthes, Stavroula A. Chrysanthopoulou, Lukoye Atwoli, David Ayuku, Paula Braitstein, and Omar Galarraga

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Testicular torsion induced by epididymo-orchitis: A case report, Ali Akbar Zehri, Allyzain Ismail, Philip Adebayo, and Authar Ali

Submissions from 2020

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Out-patient neurological disorders in Tanzania: Experience from a private institution in Dar es Salaam, Philip Adebayo, Omar Aziz, Rose E. Mwakabatika, Mandela Makakala, Mugisha Clement, Shabbir Adamjee, Noureen Mushi, Ahmed Jusabani, and Eric Aris

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The changing trend of teleconsultations during COVID-19 era at a tertiary facility in Tanzania, Philip Adebayo, Ahmed Jusabani, Murtaza Mukhtar, and Ali Akbar Zehri

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COVID-19 and stroke in sub-Saharan Africa: case series from Dar es Salaam, Philip Adebayo, Nadeem Kassam, Omar Aziz, Ahmed Jusabani, Samina Somji, and Mugisha Clement

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Furrowed tongue, fatten lip and facial droop, Philip Adebayo and Hanifa Mbithe

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Furrowed tongue, fatten lip and facial droop, Philip Adebayo and Hanifa Mbithe

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Relationship Between Obesity and Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Tanzania, Philip Adebayo, Rose E. Mwakabatika, Mugisha Clement, Funmilola T. Taiwo, Asmita Ali, and Ali Akbar Zehri

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Menstrual-Related Headaches Among a Cohort of African Adolescent Girls, Philip Adebayo, Folajimi M. Otubogun, and Rufus O. Akinyemi

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RE: Electrodiagnostic consultations in Zambia: Referral characteristics and neuromuscular disorders, Philip Adebayo and Funmilola T. Taiwo

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Conceptual framework for establishing the African Stroke Organization, Rufus Akinyemi, Fred Sarfo, Foad Abd-Allah, Yomi Ogun, Mofou Belo, Patty Francis, M Bettencourt Mateus, Pamela Naidoo, Augustina Charway-Felli, and Philip Adebayo

Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with diastolic dysfunction in Kenya, Etienne Amendezo

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Pre-treatment HIV-drug resistance associated with virologic outcome of first-line NNRTI-antiretroviral therapy: A cohort study in Kenya, Ingrid A. Beck, Molly Levine, Christine J. McGrath, Steve Bii, Ross S. Milne, James M. Kingoo, Isaac So, Nina Andersen, Sandra Dross, and Michael Chung

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Cardiac pacing in sub-Saharan Africa, Aimé Bonny, Olujimi A. Ajijola, Jeilan Mohamed, Mahmoud Sani, Zaheer Yousef, Matthew F. Yuyun, Kamilu Karaye, Mervat Aboulmaaty Nahib, Yazid Aoudia, and Loreen Akinyi

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Cardiac arrhythmia services in Africa from 2011 to 2018: the second report from the Pan African Society of Cardiology working group on cardiac arrhythmias and pacing, Aimé Bonny, Marcus Ngantcha, Matthew F. Yuyun, Kamilu M. Karaye, Wihan Scholtz, Ahmed Suliman, George Nel, Yazid Aoudia, Adama Kane, and Jeilan Mohamed

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Resource and Infrastructure-Appropriate Management of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, Y. Chandrashekhar, Thomas Alexander, Ajit Mullasari, Dharam J. Kumbhani, Samir Alam, Erick Alexanderson, Damodar Bachani, Jacobus Cornelius Wilhelmus Badenhorst, Ragavendra Baliga, and Jeilan Mohamed

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Disseminated Carcinomatosis of Bone Marrow in an African Man with Metastatic Descending Colon Carcinoma, Harrison Chuwa, Nadeem Kassam, Casmir Wambura, Omar Sherman, and Salim Surani

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A Descriptive Prospective Cohort Study At Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Tanzania to Estimate the Total Cost of Cervical Cancer Management, Harrison Chuwa, Lulu Sakafu, and Twalib Ngoma

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Determining the quality of life of children living with epilepsy in Kenya—A cross-sectional study using the CHEQOL-25 tool, Raana Hussain; James Orwa; Dilraj Sokhi; Caroline Kathomi; Hussein , Dossajeeb; Osman Miyanji; Anthony Ngugi; and Pauline Samia

The clinicodemographic profile of multiple sclerosis at Aga Khan University Hospital (Nairobi), Imran Jamal

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Postoperative myocardial injury in a patient with left ureteric stone and asymptomatic COVID-19 disease, Nadeem Kassam, Omar Aziz, Ally Zain Ismail, Rodgers Swai, Samina Somji, Robert Mvungi, Mustaafa Bapumia, Ali Akbar Zehri, and Salim Surani

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Endobronchial Tuberculosis: A Rare Presentation, Nadeem Kassam, Omar M. Aziz, Samina Somji, and Grace Shayo

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Invasive liver abscess syndrome caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae: first Tanzanian experience, Nadeem Kassam, Omar Aziz, Samina Somji, Zainab Yusuf Fidaali, and Salim Ramzan Surani

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Invasive liver abscess syndrome caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae: first Tanzanian experience, Nadeem Mehboob Kassam, Omar Mohamed Aziz, Samina Sadrudin Somji, Zainab Yusuf Fidaali, and Salim Ramzan Surani

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Adverse health effects associated with household air pollution: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and burden estimation study, Kuan Ken Lee, Rong Bing, Joanne Kiang, Sophia Bashir, Nicholas Spath, Dominik Stelzle, Kevin Mortimer, Anda Bularga, Dimitrios Doudesis, and Michael Chung

Association between dialysate sodium concentration and interdialytic weight gain in patients undergoing twice weekly haemodialysis, Soraiya Manji

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Low-coverage sequencing cost-effectively detects known and novel variation in underrepresented populations, Alicia R. Martin, Elizabeth G. Atkinson​, Sinéad B. Chapman, Anne Stevenson, Rocky E. Stroud​, Tamrat Abebe, Dickens Akena, Melkam Alemayehu, Fred K. Ashaba, and Lukoye Atwoli

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Negative Appendectomy Rate in Urban Referral Hospitals in Tanzania: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Associated Factors, Nyamuryekung’E Klint Masawa, Authar Ali, Miten Ramesh Patel, Aidan Njau, Omar Sherman, Ahmed JusabanI, and Ali Akbar Zehri

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Cytopenia among CML Patients on Imatinib in Kenya: Types, Grades, and Time Course, Angela McLigeyo, Jamilla Rajab, Mohammed Ezzi, Peter Oyiro, Yatich Bett, Andrew Odhiambo, Matilda Ong’ondi, Sitna Mwanzi, Mercy Gatua, and NAOthieno Abinya

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The inaugural meeting of the Africa Heart Rhythm Association (AFHRA), Jeilan Mohamed, Joselyn Rwebembera, Hassan Aden, Loreen Akinyi, Olujimi A. Ajijola, Ashley Chin, Bundhoo Kaviraj, Kamilu M. Karaye, Amam Mbakwem, and Beatrice Murage

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Follow-Up Care for Breast and Colorectal Cancer Across the Globe: Survey Findings From 27 Countries, Michelle A. Mollica, Deborah K. Mayer, Kevin C. Oeffinger, Youngmee Kim, Susan S. Buckenmaier, Sudha Sivaram, Catherine Muha, Nur Aishah Taib, Elisabeth Andritsch, and Asim Jamal

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The Practice of Palliative Medicine in Developing Countries—Part Three (SA500), Waleed Nafae, Avetis Babakhanyan, John Weru, Aanchal Satija, and Geraldine Ndukwu

Outcomes of inpatients hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia, Jamila Nambafu

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Long-Term Outcomes and Factors Associated with Mortality in Patients with Moderate to Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Kenya, Mzee Ngunga, Abdulaziz Mansur Abeid, Jeilan Mohamed, and Anders Barasa

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Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis: A Sub-Saharan Conundrum, Antonina Obayo, Sylvia Mbugua, and Sayed Karar

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Adult secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Antonina Obayo, Karishma Sharma, Caroline Mithi, Riyat Malkit, and Anne Mwirigi

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The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease, Philip J. O'Connell, Mark Brown, Tak Mao Chan, Rolando Claure-Del Granado, Simon Davies, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Mohamed H. Hassan, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Adeera Levin, and Ahmed Twahir

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Chronic care models and opportunities for improving health care practice and outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa: Protocol for systematic review, Peter Otieno, Charles Agyemang, Razak Gyasi, Anthony Ngugi, Catherine Kyobutungi, and African Population and Health Research Center

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Substance use service availability in HIV treatment programs: Data from the global IeDEA consortium, 2014-2015 and 2017, Angela M. Parcesepe; Kathryn Lancaster; E. Jennifer Edelman; Raquel DeBoni; The Foundation for AIDS Research, Bangkok, Thailand; and Lukoye Atwoli

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Is pollen‐food syndrome a frequent comorbidity in adults with irritable bowel syndrome?, Kirtika Patel, Gemma Vila‐Nadal, Jasmit Shah, Mohamed H. Shamji, Lorna Swan, Stephen R. Durham, Kinesh Patel, and Isabel J. Skypala

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The impact of scaling up cervical cancer screening and treatment services among women living with HIV in Kenya: a modelling study, Pablo Noel Perez-Guzman, Michael Chung, Hugo De Vuyst, Shona Dalal, Kennedy K. Mutai, Karanja Muthoni, Bartilol Kigen, Timothy B. Hallett, and Mikaela Smit

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Clinical Investigator Training Program (CITP) – A practical and pragmatic approach to conveying clinical investigator competencies and training to busy clinicians., Mansoor Saleh, Gurudatta Naik, Penelope Jester, Cynthia Joiner, Elizabeth Westfall, David W. Kimberlin, James Willig, David Redden, Juliette Southworth, and Mark T. Dransfield

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Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis (BRIC): An African Case Report, Adil Salyani, Linda Barasa, Allan Rajula, and Sayed Karar

Occult hepatitis b virus infection in a cohort of HIV infected antiretroviral therapy naïve adults, Adil Suleiman Salyani

Effect of UNMASKES on Delivering Difficult News among Residents, Karishma Sharma

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Case Report of Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease from Sub-Saharan Africa: An Important Mimic of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis, Karishma Sharma, Fredrick Otieno, and Reena Shah

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Qualitative Approach to Understanding Barriers to Delivering Difficult News in Sub Saharan Africa, Karishma Sharma, Jasmit Shah, and Sayed Karar

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Towards mental health friendly cities during and after COVID-19, Moitreyee Sinha, Manasi Kumar, Lian Zeitze, Pamela Y. Collins, Suresh Kumar, Steve Fisher, Nathaniel Foote, Norman Sartorius, Helen Herrman, and Lukoye Atwoli

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Autoimmune Encephalitis is Recognised as an Important Differential Diagnosis in a Kenyan Tertiary Referral Centre, Dilraj Sokhi and Onkar Singh Bhogal

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Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, Laura Sola, Nathan W. Levin, David W. Johnson, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Harith M. Aljubori, Yuqing Chen, Stefaan Claus, Allan Collins, Brett Cullis, and Ahmed Twahir

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Adequacy of Hemodialysis and Its Associated Factors among Patients Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Samina Somji, Pascal Ruggajo, and Sibtain Moledina

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Adequacy of Hemodialysis and Its Associated Factors among Patients Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Samina Somji, Pascal Ruggajo, and Sibtain Moledina

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Pre-marital predictors of marital violence in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys, Cara M. Stokes, Jordi Alonso, Laura Helena Andrade, Lukoye Atwoli, Graça Cardoso, Wai Tat Chiu, Rumyana V. Dinolova, Oye Gureje, Aimee N. Karam, and Elie G. Karam

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Reliability and validity of the RS14 in orphaned and separated adolescents and youths in western Kenya, Sarah C. Sutherland, Harry S. Shannon, David Ayuku, David L. Streiner, Olli Saarela, Lukoye Atwoli, and Paula Braitstein

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Post-Vaccination Pharyngeal-Cervical-Brachial Variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Funmilola T. Taiwo, Daniel E. Ezuduemoih, and Philip Adebayo

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Developing Ethical and Sustainable Global Health Educational Exchanges for Clinical Trainees: Implementation and Lessons Learned from the 30-Year Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Partnership, Matthew Turissini, Tim Mercer, Jenny Baenziger, Lukoye Atwoli, Robert Einterz, Adrian Gardner, Debra Litzelman, and Paul Ayuo

Developing Ethical and Sustainable Global Health Educational Exchanges for Clinical Trainees: Implementation and Lessons Learned from the 30-Year Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Partnership, Matthew Turissini, Tim Mercer, Jenny Baenziger, Lukoye Atwoli, Robert Einterz, Adrian Gardner, Debra Litzelman, Debra Litzelman, and Paul Ayuo

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Etiology, Treatment and Outcomes in Patients With Left Ventricular Thrombus - Experiences From an African Center, Mohamed Varwani, Jeilan Mohamed, Jasmit Shah, and Mzee Ngunga

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Revisiting Caroli Syndrome in a Tanzanian Patient, Casmir Wambura; Sharma, Munishi; and Salim Suran

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Revisiting Caroli Syndrome in a Tanzanian Patient, Casmir Wambura, Munish Sharma, and Salim Surani

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Randomized control trial of advanced cancer patients at a private hospital in Kenya and the impact of dignity therapy on quality of life, John Weru, Miriam Gatehi, and Alice Musibi

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Provision of Palliative Care Services for Cancer Patients in the Community in Africa, John Weru and Esther W. Nafula

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Primitive neuroectodermal tumor incidence, treatment patterns, and outcome: An analysis of the National Cancer Database, Matthew R. Woeste, Neal Bhutiani, Young K. Hong, Jasmit Shah, Woihwan Kim, Michael E. Egger, Prejesh Philips, Kelly M. McMasters, Robert C. G. Martin, and Charles R. Scoggins

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Global case studies for chronic kidney disease/end-stage kidney disease care, Chih-Wei Yang, David C.H. Harris, Valerie A. Luyckx, Masaomi Nangaku, Fan Fan Hou, Guillermo Garcia Garcia, Hasan Abu-Aisha, Abdou Niang, Laura Sola, and Ahmed Twahir

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Inadvertent Stone Migration During Pneumatic Lithotripsy: Still a Conundrum in the 21st Century, Ali Akbar Zehri, Miten Patel, Philip Adebayo, and Authar Ali

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Inadvertent Stone Migration During Pneumatic Lithotripsy: Still a Conundrum in the 21st Century, Ali Akbar Zehri, Miten Patel, Philip Adebayo, and Authar Ali

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Inadvertent Stone Migration During Pneumatic Lithotripsy: Still a Conundrum in the 21st Century, Ali Akbar Zehri, Miten Patel, Philip Adebayo, and Authar Ali

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Cardiospecific Overexpression of ATPGD1 (Carnosine Synthase) Increases Histidine Dipeptide Levels and Prevents Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, Jingjing Zhao, Daniel J. Conklin, Yiru Guo, Xiang Zhang, Detlef Obal, Luping Guo, Ganapathy Jagatheesan, Kartik Katragadda, Liqing He, and Jasmit Shah

Theses/Dissertations from 2019

Eligibility and patient barriers to peritoneal dialysis in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, Saleem Mohamed Abdulkarim

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Adult-onset Still’s disease triggered by pregnancy, Saleem Abdulkarim, Fredrick Otieno, and Sayed Karar

Factors associated with cardiac dysfunction following anthracyline-based chemotherapy in adults in a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Joseph Odunga Abuodha

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A delay in diagnosis: thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura occurring in systemic lupus erythematous, Zoya Adam, Ahmed Sokwala, Jasmit Shah, and Sayed Karar

Pick’s disease and subdural haematoma: A diagnostic red herring, Philip Adebayo, Funmilola Taiwo, Fatma Bakshi, and Sunham Nur

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Differential impact of risk factors on stroke occurrence among men versus women in West Africa: the SIREN study, Albert Akpalu, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Bruce Ovbiagele, Fred Sarfo, Henry Iheonye, Rufus Akinyemi, Onoja Matthew Akpa, Hemant K. Tiwari, Kolawole W. Wahab, and Philip Adebayo

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The Veterans Aging Cohort Study Index is not associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in Uganda, Violet Awori, Gertrude Nakigozi, Alice Kisakye, James Batte, Aggrey Anok, Richard Mayanja, Noeline Nakasujja, Kevin R. Robertson, Ronald H. Gray, and Maria J. Wawer

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Metastatic Breast Cancer in Kenya: Presentation, Pathologic Characteristics, and Patterns-Findings From a Tertiary Cancer Center, Etoroabasi Ekpe, Asim Jamal, Jasmit Shah, Judith S. Jacobson, and Shahin Sayed

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A Study to Assess the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults, Sean Hesselbacher, Akshar A. Aiyer, Salim R. Surani, Alishah A. Suleman, and Joseph Varon

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Cardiovascular risk factors among people living with HIV in rural Kenya: a clinic-based study, Kenneth Juma, Roseanne Nyabera, Sylvia Mbugua, George Odinya, James Jowi, Mzee Ngunga, David Zakus, and Gerald Yonga

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Fostering productive conversations in a Kenyan tertiary intensive care unit: lessons learnt, Sayed Karar, Jamila Nambafu, and Feroza Daroowalla

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Using CIRUPA to Help Foster Communication with Families about Brain Death in Sub‑Saharan Africa, Sayed Karar, Anthony Ochola, Fatima Juma, and Feroza Daroowalla

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Statement on imaging and pulmonary hypertension from the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI), David G. Kiely, David L. Levin, Paul M. Hassoun, Dunbar Ivy, Pei-Ni Jone, Jumaa Bwika, Steven M. Kawut, Jim Lordan, Angela Lungu, and Jeremy A. Mazurek

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Cytological diagnosis of cryptococcosis in a biliary specimen: Report of a rare case with brief review of literature, Neeta Kumar, Ruchika Gupta, Shahin Sayed, Zahir Moloo, Rodney Adam, Gunturu Revathi, and Smita Devani

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Global burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in people with hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and modelling study, Kuan Ken Lee, Dominik Stelzle, Rong Bing, Mohamed Anwar, Fiona Strachan, Sophia Bashir, David E. Newby, Jasmit Shah, Michael Chung, and Gerald S. Bloomfield

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Randomized controlled trial of influenza vaccine in patients with heart failure to reduce adverse vascular events (IVVE): Rationale and design, Mark Loeb, Hisham Dokainish, Antonio Dans, Lia M. Palileo-Villanueva, Ambuj Roy, Ambuj Roy, Kamilu Karaye, Jun Zhu, Yan Liang, and Gerald Yonga