The Department of Paediatrics and Child Health is committed to achieving our vision and mission of a “Children’s Hospital within a Hospital,” building on pillars of quality service improvement, client satisfaction and efficiency. ​​ Over the years, we have steadily grown our highly qualified faculty in order to ensure that quality and personalized training is available to our residents. Our paediatric service facilities at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi provide a fully equipped, modern medical learning environment. Our faculty is well qualified and offer dedicated inpatient and outpatient services at Aga Khan University Hospital in Nairobi with various areas of specialization that include; critical care and emergency medicine, endocrinology and metabolic disorders, neonatology, neurology, hematoncology, respiratory medicine, gastroenterology, nutrition and infectious diseases. Over and above clinical and teaching responsibilities, many members of our faculty engage in research with publications on various topics such as leukemia in children, HIV and epilepsy, neonatal growth parameters as well as drug therapy for children in Africa.

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Submissions from 2017

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Prevalence of abnormal aminoglycoside trough levels in children with clinically suspected gram negative infections at a tertiary level hospital In Kenya-a cross sectional study, Isaac Kihurani, Bashir Admani, and William Macharia

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Tuberous sclerosis complex in the Western Cape, South Africa: The clinical presentation features, E. Kija, B. Schlegel, Pauline Samia, M. Wessels, and J. M. Wilmshurst

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Children’s Oxygen Administration Strategies Trial (COAST): A randomised controlled trial of high flow versus oxygen versus control in African children with severe pneumonia., Kathryn Maitland, Sarah Kiguli, Robert Opoka, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Charles Engoru, Patricia Njuguna, Victor Bandika, Ayub Mpoya, Andrew Bush, and Thomas Williams

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Children’s Oxygen Administration Strategies Trial (COAST): A randomised controlled trial of high flow versus oxygen versus control in African children with severe pneumonia., Kathryn Maitland, Sarah Kiguli, Robert Opoka, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Charles Engoru, Patricia Njuguna, Victor Bandika, Ayub Mpoya, Andrew Bush, and Thomas Williams

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Pharmacokinetics of hydroxyurea therapy in African children with sickle cell anemia: a NOHARM ancillary PK study, Anu Marahatta, Min Dong, Robert Opoka, Kathryn McElhinney, Teresa Latham, Chandy John, Alexander Vinks, and Russell Ware

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High frequency of blackwater fever among children presenting to hospital with fevere febrile illnesses in eastern Uganda., Ssenkusu John Mbaziira, Hodges James Steven, Robert Opoka, Idro Richard, Shapiro Esther, John Chandy Chiramukhathu, and Bangirana Paul

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Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Overweight and Obese Children Seeking Ambulatory Health Services in Nairobi, Anne Njeri Mburu

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Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Is Associated With Disease Severity and Clinical Outcome in Ugandan Children Admitted to Hospital With Severe Malaria, Chloe R. McDonald, Andrea L. Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Robyn E. Elphinstone, Joel L. Gamble, Kyla Hayford, Sophie Namasopo, Robert Opoka, W Conrad Liles, and Kevin C. Kain

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Prevalence of Cytotoxin associated Gene-A Positive Strains in Children with Symptomatic H. Pylori Infection, Patricia Mumbi Muriithi

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Caregiver mental health and HIV-infected child wellness: perspectives from Ugandan caregivers, Sarah Murray, Itziar Familiar-López, Noeline Nakasujja, Peter Winch, Joseph Gallo, Robert Opoka, and Michael Joseph Boivin

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Development of research capacity in sickle cell anemia in Uganda: impact of collaborations., Ruth Namazzi, Chandy John, Andrea Conroy, Dibyadyuti Datta, Russell Ware, Heather Hume, and Robert Opoka

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Utilization of health services in a resource-limited rural area in Kenya: Prevalence and associated household-level factors, Anthony Ngugi, Felix Agoi, Megan R. Mahoney, Amyn Lakhani, David Mang’ong’o, Esther Nderitu, Robert Armstrong, and Sarah Macfarlane

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Reduced inflammation and increased endothelial activation in children with asymptomatic plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in a low transmission area., Elizabeth Chioma Okafor, Estela Shabani, Gregory Park, Robert Opoka, and Chandy John

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High Frequency of Blackwater Fever Among Children Presenting to Hospital With Severe Febrile Illnesses in Eastern Uganda, Peter Olupot- Olupot, Charles Engoru, Sophie Uyoga, Rita Muhindo, Alex Macharia, Sarah Kiguli, Robert Opoka, Samuel Akech, Carolyne Ndila, Richard Nyeko, George Mtove, Julius Nteziyaremye, Martin Chebet, Elizabeth C. George, Abdel G. Babiker, Diana M. Gibb, Thomas N. Williams, and Kathryn Maitland

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Obligations under global health partnerships in LMICs should be contractual, Bolajoko Olusanya and Robert Opoka

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Reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine derived from neonates undergoing routine screening for congenital hypothyroidism at a university teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross sectional study, Geoffrey Omuse, Ali Kassim, Francis Kiigu, Ra'ana Hussain, and Mary Limbe

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High postdischarge morbidity in Ugandan children with severe malarial anemia or cerebral malaria, Robert Opoka, Karen Hamre, Nathan Brand, Paul Bangirana, Richard Idro, and Chandy John

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Novel use of hydroxyurea in an african region with malaria (NOHARM): A randomized controlled trial, Robert Opoka, Christopher Ndugwa, Teresa Latham, Adam Lane, Heather Ann Hume, Philip Kasirye, James Hodges, Russell Ware, and Chandy John

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Novel use Of Hydroxyurea in an African Region with Malaria (NOHARM): a trial for children with sickle cell anemia., Robert Opoka, Christopher Ndugwa, Teresa Latham, Adam Lane, Heather Hume, Phillip Kasirye, James Hodges, Russell Ware, and Chandy John

Novel use Of Hydroxyurea in an African Region with Malaria (NOHARM): a trial for children with sickle cell anemia, Robert Opoka, Christopher M. Ndugwa, Teresa S. Latham, Adam Lane, Heather A. Hume, Phillip Kasirye, James S. Hodges, Russell E. Ware, and Chandy C. John

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Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein-2 Plasma Concentrations Are Higher in Retinopathy-Negative Cerebral Malaria Than in Severe Malarial Anemia, Gregory S. Park, Robert Opoka, Estela Shabani, Alexis Wypyszynski, Benjamin Hanisch, and Chandy C. John

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Plasmodium falciparum EPCR-binding PfEMP1 expression increases with malaria disease severity and is elevated in retinopathy negative cerebral malaria, Estela Shabani, Benjamin Hanisch, Robert Opoka, Thomas Lavstsen, and Chandy C. John

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Use of pre-hospital medication in children presenting with malaria to the emergency unit of Mulago Hospital, Uganda: A descriptive study, Victor S. Tumukunde, Elizabeth Kiboneka, Chandy C. John, Robert Opoka, and Richard Idro

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Body composition at birth and its relationship with neonatal anthropometric ratios: the newborn body composition study of the INTERGROWTH-21st project, José Villar, Fabien A. Puglia, Tanis R. Fenton, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Eleonora Staines-Urias, Francesca Giuliani, Eric O. Ohuma, Cesar G. Victora, Peter Sullivan, Fernando C. Barros, Ann Lambert, Aris T. Papageorghiou, R. Ochieng, Yasmin A. Jaffer, Douglas G. Altman, Alison J. Noble, Michael G. Gravett, Manorama Purwar, Ruyan Pang, Ricardo Uauy, Stephen H. Kennedy, and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

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Clinical Comparison of Retinopathy-Positive and Retinopathy-Negative Cerebral Malaria, Chandler Villaverde, Ruth Namazzi, Estela Shabani, Robert Opoka, and Chandy C. John

Submissions from 2016

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Novel Use of Hydroxyurea in an African Region With Malaria: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. JMIR Res Protoc., Juliana N. Anyanwu, Olatundun Williams, Casey L. Sautter, Heather Hume, Robert Opoka, Teresa Latham, Christopher Ndugwa, Russell E. Ware, and Chandy C. John

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Neurocognitive domains affected by cerebral malaria and severe malarial anemia in children., Paul Bangirana, Robert Opoka, Michael J. Boivin, Richard Idro, James S. Hodges, and Chandy C. John

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Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2–5 years in Uganda, Judith Bass, Noeline Nakasujja, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Alla Sikorskii, Sarah Murray, Robert Opoka, Jura Augustinavicius, and Michael Boivin

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A pre-post study of a multi-country scale up of resuscitation training of facility birth attendants: does Helping Babies Breathe training save lives?, Roopa M. Bellad, Akash Bang, Waldemar A. Carlo, Elizabeth M. McClure, Sreelatha Meleth, Norman Goco, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Richard J. Derman, Patricia L. Hibberd, Archana Patel, Fabian Esamai, Sherri Bucher, Peter Gisore, and Linda L. Wright

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A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate if Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Improves Neurocognition in Ugandan Children with HIV. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses., Michael J. Boivin, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Robert Opoka, and Bruno Giordani

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Malaria illness mediated by anaemia lessens cognitive development in younger Ugandan children., Michael J. Boivin, Alla Sikorskii, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Mary Muhindo, James Kapisi, Victor Bigira, Judy K. Bass, Robert Opoka, Noeline Nakasujja, Moses Kamya, and Grant Dorsey

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Differing Causes of Lactic Acidosis and Deep Breathing in Cerebral Malaria and Severe Malarial Anemia May Explain Differences in Acidosis-Related Mortality, Nathan R. Brand, Robert Opoka, Karen E. S. Hamre, and Chandy C. John

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Self-reported practices among traditional birth attendants surveyed in western Kenya: a descriptive study, Sherri Bucher, Olive Konana, Edward Liechty, Ana Garces, Peter Gisore, Irene Marete, Constance Tenge, Evelyn Shipala, Linda Wright, and Fabian Esamai

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Methemoglobin and nitric oxide therapy in Ugandan children hospitalized for febrile illness: results from a prospective cohort study and randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, Andrea Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Kyla Hayford, Laura Hermann, Chloe McDonald, Suparna Sharma, Sophie Namasopo, Robert Opoka, Chandy John, and Conrad Liles

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Acute Kidney Injury Is Common in Pediatric Severe Malaria and Is Associated With Increased Mortality., Andrea L. Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Robyn E. Elphinstone, Catherine Morgan, Laura Hermann, Kevin R. Barker, Sophie Namasopo, Chandy C. John, W. Conrad Liles, and Robert Opoka

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Methemoglobin and nitric oxide therapy in Ugandan children hospitalized for febrile illness: results from a prospective cohort study and randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, Andrea L. Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Kyla Hayford, Laura Hermann, Chloe R. McDonald, Suparna Sharma, Sophie Namasopo, Robert Opoka, Chandy C. John, W Conrad Liles, Christopher Miller, and Kevin C. Kain

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Host Biomarkers Are Associated With Response to Therapy and Long-Term Mortality in Pediatric Severe Malaria, Andrea L. Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Chloe R. McDonald, Hani Kim, Sarah J. Higgins, Kevin R. Barker, Sophie Namasopo, Robert Opoka, Chandy C. John, W Conrad Liles, and Kevin C. Kain

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Delaying Iron Therapy until 28 Days after Antimalarial Treatment Is Associated with Greater Iron Incorporation and Equivalent Hematologic Recovery after 56 Days in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Sarah E. Cusick, Robert Opoka, Steven A. Abrams, Chandy C. John, Michael K. Georgieff, and Ezekiel Mupere

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Comparison of iron status 28 d after provision of antimalarial treatment with iron therapy compared with antimalarial treatment alone in Ugandan children with severe malaria., Sarah E. Cusick, Robert Opoka, Andrew S. Ssemata, Michael K. Georgieff, and Chandy C. John

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A mutation within the SH2 domain of slp-76 regulates the tissue distribution and cytokine production of iNKT cells in mice, Claudia Danzer, Anna Koller, Julia Baier, Harald Arnold, Claudia Giessler, Robert Opoka, Stephanie Schmidt, Maike Willers, Sidonia Mihai, Hans Parsch, Stefan Wirtz, Christoph Daniel, Annegret Reinhold, Swen Engelmann, Stefanie Kliche, Christoph Daniel, Annegret Reinhold, Swen Engelmann, Stefanie Kliche, Christian Bogdan, Kasper Hoebe, and Jochen Mattner

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Prevention of Congenital Disorders and Care of Affected Children: A Consensus Statement, Gary L. Darmstadt, Christopher P. Howson, Gijs Walraven, Robert Armstrong, Hannah K. Blencowe, Arnold L. Christianson, Alastair Kent, Helen Malherbe, Jeffrey C. Murray, Carmencita D. Padilla, and Salimah R. Walani

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Cerebral Oximetry in Ugandan Children With Severe Anemia Clinical Categories and Response to Transfusion, Aggrey Dhabangi, Brenda Ainomugisha, Christine Cserti- Gazdewich, Henry Ddungu, Dorothy Kyeyune, Ezra Musisi, Robert Opoka, Christopher P. Stowell, and Walter H.

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Socio-demographic correlates of depression and anxiety among female caregivers living with HIV in rural Uganda., Itziar Familiar, Sarah Murray, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero Ruisenor-Escudero, Alla Sikorskii, Noeline Nakasujja, Michael J. Boivin, Robert Opoka, and Judith K. Bass

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Caregivers' depressive symptoms and parent- report of child executive function among young children in Uganda. Learn Individ Differ., Itziar Familiar, Noeline Nakasujja, Judith Bass, Alla Sikorskii, Sarah M. Murray, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Paul Bangirana, Robert Opoka, and Michael J. Boivin

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Clinical Features Associated with Group A Rotavirus in Children Presenting with Acute Diarrhoea at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, B Gatinu, N Kiulia, A Nyachieo, William Macharia, J Nyangao, and G Irimu

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The Implementation of a Neonatal Nurse Training Program at the Riley Mother Baby Hospital of Kenya, Stephany Guiles, James Lemons, Michael Trautman, Sherri Bucher, Julia Songok, and Peter Gisore

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Population Health Science: A Core Element of Health Science Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, Robert A. Hiatt, Natalie J. Engmann, Mushtaq Ahmed, Yasmin Amarsi, William Macharia, Sarah B. Macfarlane, Anthony Ngugi, F. Rabbani, Gijs Walraven, and Robert Armstrong

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Nutritional and Immunological Correlates of Memory and Neurocognitive Development Among HIV-Infected Children Living in Kayunga, Uganda., Ruiseñor -Escudero Horacio; Familiar -Lopez Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Jambulingam, Nikita; Nakasujja, Noelline; Robert Opoka; Bass, Judith; and Boivin, Michael

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Cerebral malaria is associated with long-term mental health disorders: a cross sectional survey of a long-term cohort, Richard Idro, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Benjamin Asea, Keron Ssebyala, Paul Bangirana, Robert Opoka, Samson K. Lubowa, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Chandy C. John, and Joyce Nalugya

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Prevalence of Bladder Dysfunction in Children with Primary Nocturnal Enuresis Presenting to the Hospital, Nikita Pravin Jethwa

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Comparison of the prevalence and characteristics of inpatient adverse events using medical records review and incident reporting, William Macharia, Charles Muteshi, Sikolia Wanyonyi, Abraham Mukaindo, Ahmed Ismail, Herman Ekea, Abdallah Abdulkarim, John Tole, and Anthony Ngugi

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Glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents in a resource limited setting in Dar es Salaam - Tanzania, Mariam Noorani, Kaushik Ramaiya, and Karim Manji

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The Impact and Successes of a Paediatric Endocrinology Fellowship Program in Africa, Gordon Otieno Odundo, Thomas Ngwiri, Olivia Otuoma, Paul Laigong, Renson Mukhwana, Mary Limbe, and Nadia Musimbi Chanzu

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Reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine derived from neonates undergoing routine screening for congenital hypothyroidism at a university teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross sectional study, Geoffrey Omuse, Ali Kassim, Francis Kiigu, Syeda Hussain, and Mary Limbe

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Effect of provision of an integrated neonatal survival kit and early cognitive stimulation package by community health workers on developmental outcomes of infants in Kwale County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial, Lisa G. Pell, Diego G. Bassani, Lucy Nyaga, Isaac Njagi, Catherine Wanjiku, Thulasi Thiruchselvam, William Macharia, Ripudaman S. Minhas, Patricia Kitsao-Wekulo, Amyn Lakhani, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Robert Armstrong, and Shaun K. Morris

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The endothelial protein C receptor rs867186-GG genotype is associated with increased soluble EPCR and could mediate protection against severe malaria., Estela Shabani, Paul Bangirana, Robert Opoka, Gregory S. Park, Gregory M. Vercellotti, Weihua Guan, James S. Hodges, Thomas Lavstsen, and Chandy C. John

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Long-term Behavioral Problems in Children With Severe Malaria, John Mbaziira Ssenkusu, James Steven Hodges, Robert Opoka, Richard Idro, Elsa Shapiro, Chandy Chiramukhathu John, and Paul Bangirana

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Exploring experimental cerebral malaria pathogenesis through the characterisation of host-derived plasma microparticle protein content, Natalia Tiberti, Sharissa L. Latham, Stephen Bush, Amy Cohen, Robert Opoka, Chandy C. John, Annette Juillard, Georges E. Grau, and Valéry Combes

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World Allergy Organization-McMaster University Guidelines for Allergic Disease Prevention (GLAD-P): Vitamin D, Juan José Yepes-Nuñez, Alessandro Fiocchi, Ruby Pawankar, Carlos A. Cuello-Garcia, Yuan Zhang, Gian Paolo Morgano, Kangmo Ahn, Suleiman Al-Hammadi, Arnav Agarwal, Shreyas Gandhi, Kirsten Beyer, Wesley Burks, Giorgio W. Canonica, Motohiro Ebisawa, Rose Kamenwa, Bee Wah Lee, Haiqi Li, Susan Prescott, John J. Riva, Lanny Rosenwasser, Hugh Sampson, Michael Spigler, Luigi Terracciano, Andrea Vereda, Susan Waserman, Holger J. Schünemann, and Jan L. Brożek

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Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025, Sachiyo Yoshida, José Martines, Peter Gisore, Joy E. Lawn, Stephen Wall, and Joăo Paulo Souza

Submissions from 2015

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Prevalence and immediate outcome of candida colonized preterm neonates admitted to Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital, Kampala Uganda, Yaser Abdallah, Deogratias Kaddu Mulindwa, Jolly Nankunda, and Philippa M. Musoke

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Diagnostic Utility of WHO Defined Sepsis Syndromic Criteria with Procalcitonin in Identification of Sepsis in Children with Suspected Infections, Samuel Owuor Akech

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Child Development, Disability and Global Health: Opportunity and Responsibility, Robert Armstrong

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Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science - A rebuttal of industry-sponsored critical comments on the UNEP/WHO report "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012", Åke Bergman, Georg Becher, Bruce Blumberg, Poul Bjerregaard, Riana Bornman, Ingvar Brandt, Stephanie Casey, Heloise Frouin, Linda Giudice, Jerrold J. Heindel, Taisen Iguchi, Susan Jobling, Karen A. Kidd, Andreas Kortenkamp, P. Monica Lind, Derek Muir, Roseline Ochieng, Erik Ropstad, Peter S. Ross, Niels Erik Skakkebaek, Jorma Toppari, Laura N. Vandenberg, Tracey J. Woodruff, and R. Thomas Zoeller

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Executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Ugandan children with perinatal HIV exposure, Matthew Burkey and Robert Opoka

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Prospective validation of pediatric disease severity scores to predict mortality in Ugandan children presenting with malaria and non-malaria febrile illness., Andrea L. Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Kyla Hayford, Sophie Namasopo, Robert Opoka, Chandy C. John, W Conrad Liles, and Kevin C. Kain

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Tissue oxygenation by transfusion in severe anemia with lactic acidosis (total): A prospective, randomized, non-inferiority trial of blood storage duration, Aggrey Dhabangi, Brenda Ainomugisha, Christine Cserti-Gazdewich, Dorothy Kyeyune, Henry Ddungu, Ezra Musisi, Robert Opoka, Christopher Stowell, and Walter Dzik

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Effect of Transfusion of Red Blood Cells With Longer vs Shorter Storage Duration on Elevated Blood Lactate Levels in Children With Severe Anemia, Aggrey Dhabangi, Brenda Ainomugisha, Christine Cserti- Gazdewic, Henry Ddungu, Dorothy Kyeyune, Ezra Musisi, Robert Opoka, Christopher P. Stowell, and Walter H. Dzik

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Immunological correlates of behavioral problems in school-aged children living with HIV in Kayunga, Uganda, Ruiseñor Escudero and Robert Opoka

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Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in asphyxiated neonates: a prospective cohort study, Farida Essajee, Fred Were, and Bashir Admani

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World Allergy Organization-McMaster University Guidelines for Allergic Disease Prevention (GLAD-P): Probiotics, Alessandro Fiocchi, Ruby Pawankar, Carlos Cuello-Garcia, Kangmo Ahn, Suleiman Al-Hammadi, Arnav Agarwal, Kirsten Beyer, Wesley Burks, Giorgio W. Canonica, Motohiro Ebisawa, Shreyas Gandhi, Rose Kamenwa, Bee Wah Lee, Haiqi Li, Susan Prescott, John J. Riva, Lanny Rosenwasser, Hugh Sampson, Michael Spigler, Luigi Terracciano, Andrea Vereda-Ortiz, Susan Waserman, Juan José Yepes-Nuñez, Jan L. Brożek, and Holger J. Schünemann

Predicting mortality in sick African children: the FEAST Paediatric Emergency Triage (PET) Score., Elizabeth C. George, A. Sarah Walker, Sarah Kiguli, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Robert Opoka, Charles Engoru, Samuel O. Akech, Richard Nyeko, George Mtove, and Hugh Reyburn

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Thrombocytopenia May Mediate Disease Severity in Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Through Reduced Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 Regulation of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, Benjamin R. Hanisch, Paul Bangirana, Robert Opoka, Gregory S. Park, and Chandy C. John

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Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011-2013., Michael Hawkes, Andrea L. Conroy, Robert Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Kathleen Zhong, W. Conrad Liles, Chandy C. John, and Kevin C. Kain

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Inhaled nitric oxide as adjunctive therapy for severe malaria: a randomized controlled trial., Michael T. Hawkes, Andrea L. Conroy, Robert Opoka, Laura Hermann, Kevin E. Thorpe, Chloe McDonald, Hani Kim, Sophie Namasopo, Sarah Higgins, and Chandy John

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Hypogammaglobulinemia in sub-Saharan Africa: a case report and review of the literature, J Hsu, Robert Opoka, and T C. Lund

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Use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and Child Behavior Checklist in Ugandan Children with HIV or a History of Severe Malaria., Familiar Itziar, Ruisenor -Escudero, Horacio PhD, Giordani Bruno, Bangirana Paul, Nakasujja Noeline, Robert Opoka, and Boivin Michael

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Anaemia and blood transfusion in African children presenting to hospital with severe febrile illness., Sarah Kiguli, Kathryn Maitland, Elizabeth C. George, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Robert Opoka, Charles Engoru, Samuel O. Akech, Richard Nyeko, George Mtove, and Hugh Reyburn

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Transfusion and Treatment of severe anaemia in African children (TRACT): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial., Ayub Mpoya, Sarah Kiguli, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Robert Opoka, Charles Engoru, Macpherson Mallewa, Yami Chimalizeni, Neil Kennedy, Dorothy Kyeyune, and Benjamin Wabwire

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Perceptions of postgraduate trainees on the impact of objective structured clinical examinations on their study behavior and clinical practice., Robert Opoka, Sarah Kiguli, Andrew S. Ssemata, Marjan Govaerts, and Erik W. Driessen

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Caregivers’ knowledge, perceptions and home management practices of fever in children under the age of five years presenting with acute febrile illnesses, Katherine Oyieke

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Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Nusrat. A. Said

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Parental Understanding of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Pauline Samia, Kirsten A. Donald, Birgit Schlegel, and Jo M. Wilmshurst

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Oral amoxicillin compared with injectable procaine benzylpenicillin plus gentamicin for treatment of neonates and young infants with fast breathing when referral is not possible: a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial, Antoinette Tshefu, Adrien Lokangaka, Serge Ngaima, Cyril Engmann, Fabian Esamai, Peter Gisore, Adejumoke Idowu Ayede, Adegoke Gbadegesin Falade, Ebunoluwa A. Adejuyigbe, Chineme Henry Anyabolu, Robinson D. Wammanda, Clara L. Ejembi, William N. Ogala, Lu Gram, and Simon Cousens

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Simplified antibiotic regimens compared with injectable procaine benzylpenicillin plus gentamicin for treatment of neonates and young infants with clinical signs of possible serious bacterial infection when referral is not possible: a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial, Antoinette Tshefu, Adrien Lokangaka, Serge Ngaima, Cyril Engmann, Fabian Esamai, Peter Gisore, Adejumoke Idowu Ayede, Adegoke Gbadegesin Falade, Ebunoluwa A. Adejuyigbe, Chineme Henry Anyabolu, Robinson D. Wammanda, Clara L. Ejembi, William N. Ogala, Lu Gram, and Simon Cousens

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Postnatal growth standards for preterm infants: the Preterm Postnatal Follow-up Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, José Villar, Francesca Giuliani, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Enrico Bertino, Eric O. Ohuma, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Fernando C. Barros, Douglas G. Altman, Cesar Victora, Julia A. Noble, Michael G. Gravett, Manorama Purwar, Ruyan Pang, Ann Lambert, Aris T. Papageorghiou, Roseline Ochieng, Yasmin A. Jaffer, and Stephen H. Kennedy

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Cross-sectional survey on prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at a tertiary care health facility in Nairobi, Susan Wamithi, Roseline Ochieng, Frank Njenga, Samuel Akech, and William Macharia

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Parenting skills and emotional availability: An RCT, Aisha K. Yousafzai, Muneera A. Rasheed, Arjumand Rizvi, Robert Armstrong, and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Submissions from 2014

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Prevalence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia, Dan Alaro, Bashir Admani, Lucy Wainaina, and Rachel Musoke

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Implementation and evaluation of the Helping Babies Breathe curriculum in three resource limited settings: does Helping Babies Breathe save lives? A study protocol, Akash Bang, Roopa Bellad, Peter Gisore, Patricia Hibberd, Archana Patel, Shivaprasad Goudar, Fabian Esamai, Norman Goco, Sreelatha Meleth, Richard J. Derman, Edward A. Liechty, Elizabeth McClure, Waldemar A. Carlo, and Linda L. Wright

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A year-long caregiver training program to improve neurocognition in preschool Ugandan HIV-exposed children., Michael J. Boivin, Paul Bangirana, Noeline Nakasujja, Connie F. Page, Cilly Shohet, Deborah Givon, Judith K. Bass, Robert Opoka, and Pnina S. Klein

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Vitamin D insufficiency is common in Ugandan children and is associated with severe malaria., Sarah E. Cusick, Robert Opoka, Troy C. Lund, Chandy C. John, and Lynda E. Polgreen

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Pediatric Cerebral Palsy in Africa: Where Are We?, Kirsten A. Donald, Angelina M. Kakooza, Robinson D. Wammanda, Macpherson Mallewa, Pauline Samia, Haydar Babakir, David Bearden, Annette Majnemer, Darcy Fehlings, Michael Shevell, Harry Chugani, and Jo M. Wilmshurst

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Pediatric cerebral palsy in Africa: A systematic review, Kirsten A. Donald, Pauline Samia, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, and David Bearden

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Models of care for orphaned and separated children and upholding children's rights: cross-sectional evidence from western Kenya, Lonnie Embleton, David Ayuku, Allan Kamanda, Lukoye Atwoli, Samuel Ayaya, Rachel Vreeman, Winstone Nyandiko, Peter Gisore, Julius Koech, and Paula Braitstein

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Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering, Patricia Garcia, Robert Armstrong, and Muhammad H. Zaman

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Racecadotril for the treatment of severe acute watery diarrhoea in children admitted to the Kenyatta National hospital - a randomised double blinded placebo controlled trial, Jaspreet Singh Gharial

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Motivational Interviewing Intervention on Health-Seeking Behaviors of Pregnant Women in Western Kenya, Peter Gisore, Dan Kaseje, Fred Were, and David Ayuku

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Cost effectiveness of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on early child development outcomes in Pakistan, Saima Gowani, Aisha K. Yousafzai, Robert Armstrong, and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

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Performance of point-of-care diagnostics for glucose, lactate, and hemoglobin in the management of severe malaria in a resource-constrained hospital in Uganda., Michael Hawkes, Andrea L. Conroy, Robert Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, W. Conrad Liles, Chandy C. John, and Kevin C. Kain