Mental health concerns are now at the top of the list of threats to the economic and social well-being of the people and communities served by AKU. Children and youth, a huge demographic in served countries, are especially vulnerable with large proportions of the population already suffering the lifelong consequences of inaction.​
​The Brain and Mind Institute is a new entity that operates across the Aga Khan University’s multi-country campuses, connecting the rich tapestry of academic entities, and facilitating interdisciplinary research, education and related clinical programming in mental health and neurosciences. The Institute is developing an integrated mental health framework and its work program involves Read more...

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Submissions from 2007

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Ruminative coping among patients with dysthymia before and after pharmacotherapy, Owen Kelly, Kim Matheson, Arun Ravindran, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Hypoxia alters the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins after brain trauma in the mouse, Angelo Mikrogianakis, Rachel E. Shaye, Phillip Griffin, Sarah Kawesa, Julia Lockwood, Nathalie H. Gendron, Isabelle Gaboury, Zul Merali, Alex E. Mackenzie, and James S. Hutchison

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Distribution and morphology of catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of the highveld gerbil, Tatera brantsii, Don-Joon Moon, Busisiwe C. Maseko, Amadi O. Ihunwo, Kjell Fuxe, and Paul R. Manger

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Anxiety responses, plasma corticosterone and central monoamine variations elicited by stressors in reactive and nonreactive mice and their reciprocal F1 hybrids, V. Roy, Zul Merali, M. O. Poulter, and H. Anisman

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Acute and Chronic Changes in Aquaporin 4 Expression After Spinal Cord Injury, Olivera Nesic Taylor,; Julieann Lee; Zaiming Ye; Geda C. Unabia; Danny Rafati; Claire E. Hulsebosch; and J. Regino Perez-Polo

Submissions from 2006

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Therapeutic and protective effect of environmental enrichment against psychogenic and neurogenic stress, Cosette Fox, Zul Merali, and Catherine Harrison

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The frequency and anatomical features of torus mandibularis in a Black South African population, Amadi O. Ihunwo and P Phukubye

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Bombesin receptors as a novel anti-anxiety therapeutic target: BB1 receptor actions on anxiety through alterations of serotonin activity, Zul Merali, Tania Bédard, Nick Andrews, Ben Davis, Alexander T. McKnight, M. Isabel Gonzalez, Martyn Pritchard, Pam Kent, and Hymie Anisman

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin, gastrin-releasing peptide, and neuromedin B alterations in stress-relevant brain regions of suicides and control subjects, Zul Merali, Pamela Kent, Lisheng Du, Pavel Hrdina, Miklos Palkovits, Gabor Faludi, Michael O. Poulter, Tania Bédard, and Hymie Anisman

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Effects of acute or chronic omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid treatment on behavioral, neuroendocrine and cytokine changes elicited by exogenous interleukin-1beta challenge, Maïa Miguelez, Hymie Anisman, Jean-Michel Weber, and Zul Merali

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The role of gastrin-releasing peptide on conditioned fear: differential cortical and amygdaloid responses in the rat, Christine Mountney, Victoria Sillberg, Pam Kent, Hymie Anisman, and Zul Merali

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Maternal factors and monoamine changes in stress-resilient and susceptible mice: cross-fostering effects, Priya Prakash, Zul Merali, Miroslava Kolajova, Beth M. Tannenbaum, and Hymie Anisman

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Evaluation of anxiolytic properties of Gotukola--(Centella asiatica) extracts and asiaticoside in rat behavioral models, P. Wijeweera, J. T. Arnason, D. Koszycki, and Zul Merali

Submissions from 2005

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Cytokines as a precipitant of depressive illness: animal and human studies, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, Michael O. Poulter, and Shawn Hayley

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The pathogenesis of clinical depression: stressor- and cytokine-induced alterations of neuroplasticity, S. Hayley, M. O. Poulter, Zul Merali, and H. Anisman

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Activation of nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway by interleukin-1 after hypoxia/ischemia in neonatal rat hippocampus and cortex, Xiaoming Hu; Olivera Nesic Taylor,; Jingxin Qiu; Harriett C. Rea; Roderick Fabian; David K. Rassin; and J Regino Perez-Polo

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Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Mental Health: Summary, H. M. Schachter, K. Kourad, Zul Merali, A. Lumb, K. Tran, and M. Miguelez

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Exogenous Bcl-XLFusion Protein SparesNeurons After Spinal Cord Injury, Olivera Nesic Taylor,; D. Cittelly; Z. Ye; G. Y. Xu; G. Unabia; N. M. Svrakic; X. H. Liu; R. J. Youle; T. G. Wood; and D. McAdoo

Submissions from 2004

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Use and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) among three occupational groups in south western Uganda, Amadi O. Ihunwo, F IB Kayanja, and U B. Amadi-Ihunwo

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Does amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mediate anxiety-like behaviors? Dissociation of anxiogenic effects and CRH release, Zul Merali, S. Khan, D. S. Michaud, S. A. Shippy, and H. Anisman

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Anticipatory Cues Differentially Provoke In Vivo Peptidergic and Monoaminergic Release at the Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Zul Merali, Judy McIntosh, and Hymie Anisman

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Bombesin-like peptides and associated receptors within the brain: distribution and behavioral implications, Terry W. Moody and Zul Merali

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Amygdala amino acid and monoamine levels in genetically Fast and Slow kindling rat strains during massed amygdala kindling: a microdialysis study, Rick S. Shin, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, and Dan C. McIntyre

Submissions from 2003

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Cytokines, stress and depressive illness: brain-immune interactions, Hymie Anisman and Zul Merali

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Sensitization associated with stressors and cytokine treatments, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, and Shawn Hayley

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Neurochemical sensitization associated with systemic administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: adjuvant action in combination with bovine serum albumin, Hymie Anisman, Nicolas P. Turrin, Zul Merali, and Shawn Hayley

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Phytochemical and biological analysis of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): a medicinal plant with anxiolytic properties, R. Awad, J. T. Arnason, V. Trudeau, C. Bergeron, J. W. Budzinski, B. C. Foster, and Zul Merali

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Degeneration of β-amyloid-associated cholinergic structures in transgenic APPSW mice, Hans-Joachim Lüth, Jenny Apelt, Amadi O. Ihunwo, Thomas Arendt, and Reinhard Schliebs

Submissions from 2002

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The acute and sensitization effects of tumor necrosis factor-α: implications for immunotherapy as well as psychiatric and neurological conditions, Shawn Hayley, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Role of bombesin-related peptides in the mediation or integration of the stress response, Zul Merali, P. Kent, and H. Anisman

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Stress, coping, uplifts, and quality of life in subtypes of depression: a conceptual frame and emerging data, Arun V. Ravindran, Kimberly Matheson, Jenna Griffiths, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Changes in extracellular levels of amygdala amino acids in genetically fast and slow kindling rat strains., Rick S. Shin, Hymie Anisman, Dan C. McIntyre, and Zul Merali

Submissions from 2001

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Posttraumatic stress symptoms and salivary cortisol levels, Hymie Anisman, Jenna Griffiths, Kimberly Matheson, Arun V. Ravindran, and Zul Merali

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Psychogenic, neurogenic, and systemic stressor effects on plasma corticosterone and behavior: mouse strain-dependent outcomes, Hymie Anisman, Shawn Hayley, Kelly Owen, Thomas Borowski, and Zul Merali

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Rodent Models of Depression: Learned Helplessness Induced in Mice, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, K Brennan, and D Roberts

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Central monoamine activity in genetically distinct strains of mice following a psychogenic stressor: effects of predator exposure, Shawn Hayley, Thomas Borowski, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Central monoamine and plasma corticosterone changes induced by a bacterial endotoxin: sensitization and cross-sensitization effects, Shawn Hayley, Susan Lacosta, Zul Merali, Nico Van Rooijen, and Hymie Anisman

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Time-dependent sensitization of corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and c-fos immunoreactivity within the mouse brain in response to tumor necrosis factor-α, Shawn Hayley, William Staines, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Central bombesin activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Effects on regional levels and release of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine-vasopressin, P Kent, Hymie Anisman, and Zul Merali

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Bombesin-induced HPA and sympathetic activation requires CRH receptors, P Kent, Tania Bédard, Samir Khan, Hymie Anisman, and Zul Merali

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Differential impact of predator or immobilization stressors on central corticotropin-releasing hormone and bombesin-like peptides in Fast and Slow seizing rat., Zul Merali, Pam Kent, David Michaud, Dan McIntyre, and Hymie Anisman

Submissions from 2000

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Acoustic startle and fear-potentiated startle in rats selectively bred for fast and slow kindling rates: relation to monoamine activity., Hymie Anisman, Kelly Owen, Shawn Hayley, Thomas Borowski, Zul Merali, and Dan C. McIntyre

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Synergistic effects of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha: central monoamine, corticosterone, and behavioral variations, Karen Brebner, Shawn Hayley, Robert Zacharko, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Dysthymia: a review of pharmacological and behavioral factors, J Griffiths, AV Ravindran, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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A prospective study of neuroendocrine and immune alterations associated with the stress of an oral academic examination among graduate students, K Lacey, M.D Zaharia, J Griffiths, A.V Ravindran, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Central Monoamine Activity following Acute and Repeated Systemic Interleukin-2 Administration, Susan Lacosta, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Neither acute nor chronic exposure to a naturalistic (predator) stressor influences the interleukin-1beta system, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta1, and neuropeptide mRNAs in specific brain regions, Carlos R. Plata-Salamán, Sergey E. Ilyin, Nicolas P. Turrin, Dave Gayle, Mark C. Flynn, Tanya Bedard, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Lymphocyte proliferation among major depressive and dysthymic patients with typical or atypical features, Marilee D. Zaharia, Arun V. Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

Submissions from 1999

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Anhedonic and anxiogenic effects of cytokine exposure, Hymie Anisman and Zul Merali

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Understanding stress: characteristics and caveats, Hymie Anisman and Zul Merali

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Interleukin-1 beta production in dysthymia before and after pharmacotherapy, Hymie Anisman, Arun V. Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, and Zul Merali

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Endocrine and cytokine correlates of major depression and dysthymia with typical or atypical features, Hymie Anisman, A.V Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, and Zul Merali

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Interleukin-1 beta production in dysthymia before and after pharmacotherapy, Hymie Anisman, A.V Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, and Zul Merali

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Influence of bombesin on threshold for feeding and reward in the rat, T Bushnik, C Bielajew, A T. Konkle, and Zul Merali

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Stressor-induced alterations in serotonergic activity in an animal model of depression, Thomas J. Connor, Cai Song, Brian E. Leonard, Hymie Anisman, and Zul Merali

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Anatomical basis for pressure on the common peroneal nerve, Amadi O. Ihunwo and N. D. Dimitrov

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Effects of acute restraint stress on endogenous adrenomedullin levels, S Khan, D Michaud, T W. Moody, Hymie Anisman, and Zul Merali

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Behavioral and neurochemical consequences of lipopolysaccharide in mice: anxiogenic-like effects, Susan Lacosta, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Influence of acute and repeated interleukin-2 administration on spatial learning, locomotor activity, exploratory behaviors, and anxiety, Susan Lacosta, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Influence of Psychosocial, Psychogenic and Neurogenic Stressors on Several Aspects of Immune Functioning in Mice, Zheng Wu Lu, Shawn Hayley, Arun V. Ravindran, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Influence of psychogenic and neurogenic stressors on neuroendocrine and central monoamine activity in fast and slow kindling rats, Dan C. McIntyre, Pam Kent, Shawn Hayley, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Short- and long-periods of neonatal maternal separation differentially affect anxiety and feeding in adult rats: gender-dependent effects, Judy Mclntosh, Hymie Anisman, and Zul Merali

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The role of bombesin and bombesin-related peptides in the short-term control of food intake, Zul Merali, Judy Mclntosh, and Hymie Anisman

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Case report, A. U. Mukhtar and Amadi O. Ihunwo

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Treatment of primary dysthymia with group cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy: clinical symptoms and functional impairments, Arun V. Ravindran, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, Yoland Charbonneau, John Telner, Robert J. Bialik, Andrew Wiens, Jack Ellis, and Jenna Griffiths

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Circulating lymphocyte subsets in obsessive compulsive disorder, major depression and normal controls, Arun V. Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and immune measures in healthy males, Arun V. Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, Zul Merali, V J. Knott, and Hymie Anisman

Submissions from 1998

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Neural plasticity, neuropeptides and anxiety in animals--implications for understanding and treating affective disorder following traumatic stress in humans, R Adamec, Pam Kent, Hymie Anisman, T Shallow, and Zul Merali

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Differential effects of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 on responding for rewarding lateral hypothalamic stimulation, Hymie Anisman, L Kokkinidis, Thomas Borowski, and Zul Merali

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Stressor-induced corticotropin-releasing hormone, bombesin, ACTH and corticosterone variations in strains of mice differentially responsive to stressors., Hymie Anisman, Susan Lacosta, Pamela Kent, Dan C. McIntyre, and Mohamoud Merali

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Do early-life events permanently alter behavioral and hormonal responses to stressors?, Hymie Anisman, Marilee D. Zaharia, Michael J. Meaney, and Zul Merali

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Lipopolysaccharide, central in vivo biogenic amine variations, and anhedonia, Thomas Borowski, Larry Kokkinidis, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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An assessment of the effects of central interleukin-1beta, -2, -6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha administration on some behavioural, neurochemical, endocrine and immune parameters in the rat., Thomas J. Connor, Cai Song, Brian E. Leonard, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Influence of interleukin-1beta on exploratory behaviors, plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and central biogenic amines in mice., Susan Lacosta, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Influence of a Psychogenic and a Neurogenic Stressor on Several Indices of Immune Functioning in Different Strains of Mice, Z W. Lu, Cai Song, A V. Ravindran, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Aversive and Appetitive Events Evoke the Release of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Bombesin-Like Peptides at the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala, Zul Merali, Judy Mclntosh, Pam Kent, David Michaud, and Hymie Anisman

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Sustained bombesin exposure results in receptor down-regulation and tolerance to the chronic but not acute effects of bombesin on ingestion, Hélène Plamondon, Carole Lambert, and Zul Merali

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Circulating lymphocyte subsets in major depression and dysthymia with typical or atypical features, Arun V. Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

Submissions from 1997

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Influence of Psychogenic and Neurogenic Stressors on Endocrine and Immune Activity: Differential Effects in Fast and Slow Seizing Rat Strains, Hymie Anisman, Z W. Lu, Cai Song, Pamela Kent, D. C. Mcintyre, and Zul Merali

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Chronic stressors and depression: distinguishing characteristics and individual profiles, Hymie Anisman and Zul Merali

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Neuroendocrine measures and lymphocyte subsets in depressive illness: influence of a clinical interview concerning life experiences, Jenna Griffiths, Arun V. Ravindran, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Distribution of median nerve to muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm., Amadi O. Ihunwo, S. P. Osinde, and A. U. Mukhtar

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ARE BOMBESIN-LIKE PEPTIDES INVOLVED IN THE MEDIATION OF STRESS RESPONSE?, Pam Kent, Hymie Anisman, and Zul Merali

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Pharmaco-ontogeny of bombesin's suppression of food intake and its attenuation by histamine H3 receptor agonists., Pamela Kent, Hélène Plamondon, and Zul Merali

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Effects of interleukin-1β and mild stress on alterations of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission: a regional microdialysis study, Zul Merali, Hymie Anisman, and Susan Lacosta

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Anorectic action of bombesin requires receptor for corticotropin-releasing factor but not for oxytocin, Hélène Plamondon and Zul Merali

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Regulation of ingestion by CRF and bombesin-like peptides: distinct meal-related peptide level changes., Hélène Plamondon and Zul Merali

Submissions from 1996

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Interleukin-2 decreases accumbal dopamine efflux and responding for rewarding lateral hypothalamic stimulation, Hymie Anisman, Larry Kokkinidis, and Zul Merali

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Pharmaco-Ontogenic Modulation of Feeding by Oxytocin, Bombesin, and Their Antagonists, Zul Merali and Hélène Plamondon

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Variations of lymphocyte subsets associated with stress in depressive populations, Arun V. Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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Primary dysthymia: A study of several psychosocial, endocrine and immune correlates, A.V Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

Submissions from 1995

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Lymphocyte subsets associated with major depression and dysthymia: Modification by antidepressant treatment., Arun V. Ravindran, Jenna Griffiths, Zul Merali, and Hymie Anisman

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N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist activity and phencyclidine-like behavioral effects of the pentadecapeptide, [Ser1]histogranin, Vijay K. Shukla, Simon Lemaire, Michel Dumont, and Zul Merali

Submissions from 1994

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Time-dependent in vivo mesolimbic dopamine variations following antigenic challenge, Susan Lacosta, Zul Merali, S. Zalcman, and Hymie Anisman

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Does the histaminergic system mediate bombesin/GRP-induced suppression of food intake?, Zul Merali and K Banks

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Neuropeptide Y: Intrastriatal injections produce contralateral circling that is blocked by a dopamine antagonist in rats, Elizabeth Moore, Zul Merali, and Richard J. Beninger

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Push-pull perfusion reveals meal-dependent changes in the release of bombesin-like peptides in the rat paraventricular nucleus, Hélène Plamondon and Zul Merali

Submissions from 1993

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Characterization of Histogranin Receptors in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes, Simon Lemaire, Jenna Griffiths, C Lapierre, I Lemaire, Zul Merali, and A V. Ravindran

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Rapid alterations of hypothalamic and hippocampal bombesin-like peptide levels with feeding status, Zul Merali and C C. Kateb

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Blockade of brain bombesin/GRP receptors increases food intake in satiated rats, Zul Merali, T W. Moody, and D Coy