From assessment to learning: The teaching of English beyond examinations

Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


The backwash of testing on teaching can be positive or negative. This article is based on the findings of a study carried out in Kenya on strengthening the development of literacy in English among primary school children, which established that the learners performed poorly on skills that were not directly tested in the conventional examinations. Interventions used in improving teaching, learning, and assessment to target communicative competences are discussed in the article.

Publication (Name of Journal)

The Educational Forum