A comparative study of teaching methods of social studies techers in two secondary schools in Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Social Studies (SST) is being taught in Pakistani schools from class I-A to VIII as a compulsory subject. The purpose of teaching this subject, according to the national curriculum of Pakistan (2007) is to prepare the new generation as informed, active and participatory citizens of Pakistan. The teaching of this subject has not been taken seriously in Pakistan. The centrally developed curriculum is imposed on the teachers and students without keeping the contextual realities in mind. The teachers and students' voices are hardly listened to in developing and implementing the curriculum. As a result, the quality of teaching and learning SST has declined largely. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore teachers and students' perceptions about effective teaching methods of SST. It was conducted in two secondary schools (one private and one public) in Karachi, Pakistan. Through interviews, classroom observations, focused group discussion and document analysis, the data was collected from both teachers and students. The findings of the study showed that the teachers of SST use multiple methods of teaching such as cooperative learning, Socratic Method, storytelling method, discussion method and recitation method. There were differences between the two teachers. The teacher in public school was using mostly teacher-centered methods whereas the teacher in private school was using students centered methods. Likewise, the students perceive cooperative learning, explaining well, teaching with love and fun as effective methods of teaching SST. The study was important in the sense that it brings the voices of teachers and students forward. Such types of studies are very rare in Pakistan where the teachers and students' perceptions regarding effective methods of SST have been investigated. The study adds, in a small way, to our existing deficient knowledge of the real experience of teachers and students. More particularly, students' voices are often not explored though they are so important in selecting effective methods of teaching SST in Pakistan.

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