Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Tage Biswalo

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Shelina Walli


Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


This study examined the conflict management approaches practiced by heads of schools, teachers, and student leaders in Hai District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. The study's objectives were to examine secondary school heads' skills and knowledge in conflict resolution, to examine school heads' conflict resolution approaches, and assess the effectiveness of school heads' conflict resolution strategies. The study employed a qualitative approach, with data gathered through interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), and document analysis. Three different school heads, as well as three discipline teachers, were interviewed. The FGD included six student leaders, two from each of the three schools. The document analysis guide was used to determine whether conflict resolution approaches were used by heads of secondary schools, discipline teachers, and student leaders in their respective schools. The study revealed that the most predominant conflict management approaches practiced by heads of schools, discipline teachers, and student leaders were compromising, accommodating, and meetings discussions which are open systems in which everyone expresses their opinions and areas of contention are openly discussed. The study further found that conflicts occur mostly between students and teachers, and the main causes are disciplinary issues and teachers’ merciless administration of corporal punishment contrary to Article 60 of the National Education Act No. 25 of 1978, as amended by Act No. 294 of 2002. Other causes were abusive language, failure to adhere to school regulations, and ineffective communication by school leadership Based on these findings, the study recommends that the responsible ministries ensure that educational administrators receive professional development programs to cultivate their understanding and build upon their knowledge in leadership styles, conflict management strategies, and proper administration of corporal punishment in schools, which has fueled massive conflicts between students and teachers.