Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Objective: To determine the prevalence and possible factors associated with anaemia, and vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in women of reproductive age (WRA) in Pakistan.
Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted on data collected through the large-scale National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan in 2011. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin levels /dL, vitamin B12 deficiency as serum vitamin B12 levels of /mL (150 pmol/L) and folate deficiency as serum folate levels /mL (10 nmol/L).
Results: A total of 11 751 blood samples were collected and analysed. The prevalence of anaemia, vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency was 50.4%, 52.4% and 50.8%, respectively. After adjustment, the following factors were positively associated with anaemia: living in Sindh province (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.09) P
In Pakistan, anaemia, and vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies are a severe public health concern among WRA. Our findings suggest that further research is needed on culturally appropriate short-term and long-term interventions within communities and health facilities to decrease anaemia, and vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies among Pakistani women.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMJ Open

Included in

Pediatrics Commons