Document Type



Medical College Pakistan; Community Health Sciences; Haematology/Oncology; Psychiatry; Neurosurgery; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Introduction: This study translated and validated the Urdu version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and Brain Module (QLQ-BN20) amongst patients with primary brain tumors (PBT) in Pakistan, and assessed the correlation of QoL with resilience, depression, and anxiety.
Methods: Translation of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BN20 was performed as per EORTC guidelines. A survey comprising of Urdu translations of EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-BN20, Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to patients with PBT at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Reliability (via Cronbach alpha), content validity index (CVI) scores, construct validity, and inter-scale correlations were assessed.
Results: Our sample consisted of 250 patients with PBT, most commonly glioma (46.8%) and meningioma (21.2%). All patients were able to understand the Urdu translations. The Cronbach alphas for the QLQ-C30 and the QLQ-BN20 were 0.860 and 0.880, respectively. The CVI scores for clarity and relevance were high for both the EORTC QLQ-C30 (0.98 and 0.96, respectively) and the QLQ-BN20 tool (0.81 and 0.95, respectively). The global QoL domain (EORTC QLQ-C30) showed significant positive correlations with resilience (r = 0.422), and significant negative correlations with depression (r = - 0.541) and anxiety (r = - 0.502). Strong inter-scale correlations were observed between physical functioning and insomnia (r = - 0.690) and role functioning and insomnia (r = - 0.641).
Conclusion: Our study confirms the Urdu versions of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BN20 as valid clinical tools for the measurement of QoL in primary brain tumors patients within the cultural and socioeconomic context of Pakistan.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.