The correlation between stone nephrolithometry score and hemoglobin drop in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy
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Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the correlation between the STONE score [(S)ize of the stone, (T)opography or location, degree of (O)bstruction of the urinary system, (N)umber of stones, and (E)valuation of Hounsfield units] and postoperative hemoglobin drop in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).
Methods: This was a prospective observational study and all adult patients aged 18-65 years undergoing unilateral, single-tract PCNL using 26 Ch. Amplatz sheath for renal calculi were included. The five variables of the STONE nephrolithometry score were calculated prior to the procedure. The stone-free rates were assessed on imaging at four weeks and complications were graded using the modified Clavien system.
Results: Of the 142 patients included, 75% were below 55 years of age. More than half of our patients were diabetic with more than 60% having a body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m2. The mean STONE score was 7 with 33% having a high (>9) STONE score. The mean hemoglobin drop was 1.15 +0.92 g/dL with eight patients (5.63%) requiring transfusion and one (0.7%) requiring angioembolization; one patient required readmission for observation. Complete STONE clearance was achieved with PCNL alone in 78.2% of the patients. There was a significant correlation of hemoglobin drop with the STONE score, stone size, and preoperative creatinine clearance. Patients with a hemoglobin drop of >1 g/dL had a higher STONE score and mean stone size. The overall complication rate was significantly higher (10.5%) in patients with a hemoglobin drop of >1 g/dL as compared to those with a hemoglobin drop of <1 g>/dL (2.8%).
Conclusion: Stone complexity as measured by the STONE score correlates with post-PCNL hemoglobin drop, stone clearance, and complication rates. The STONE score may be used for preoperative counseling and to evaluate the potential need for transfusion.