Bio-active cements-mineral trioxide aggregate based calcium silicate materials: A narrative review
Recent advances in the field of endodontics have greatly improved the outcome and success rate of dental materials. For last three decades, there has been great interest in the development of bioactive dental material with the ability to interact and induce surrounding dental tissues to promote regeneration of pulpal and periradicular tissues. As these bioactive materials are mainly based on calcium silicates, they are also referred to as Calcium Silicate materials. The first material introduced was Mineral Tri-oxide Aggregate, which, due to its favourable biological properties, gained importance initially. However, later, due to its drawbacks, liked is colouration, long setting time and difficult manipulation, several modifications were done and newer bioactive materials, such as Biodentine, BioAggregate, Endosequence, Calcium-Enriched Mixture etc., were developed. The main applications of these materials are for pulp capping (direc t/indirec t), pulpotomy, perforation repair, resorption defects, apexogenesis and as retrograde filling materials, apexification and endodontic sealers. This review discusses the various types of bioactive materials, their composition, setting mechanism, and literature evidence for current applications.