Document Type



General Surgery


The face is the most expressive zone of the human body that communicates our feelings and thoughts. This may also influence the interaction between people. The aesthetic adjunctive procedures are life-changing. In contemporary orthodontic treatment, orthognathic surgeries are performed to correct the functional aspects of dento facial deformities. In cases where the aesthetic outcome is not improved, patient dissatisfaction is often encountered. Many adjunctive surgical procedures can be used to enhance the anaesthetics of orthodontic or orthognathic surgical cases. Dwelling not merely on the ideal occlusion, the results could be enhanced by analysing the whole-face to improve the overall treatment outcome.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License