Document Type



General Surgery




To observe changes in surgeons' practice of antibiotic usage in patients with acute cholecystitis before and after the implementation of Tokyo Guidelines.


This retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised the medical records of all patients with the diagnosis of acute calculus cholecystitis who presented in 2009 and those who presented in 2014 after the implementation of Tokyo Guidelines. The major variables included patients' demographics, antibiotics used and surgical outcomes. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis.


Of the 356 patients, 96(27%) were treated in 2009 and 260(73%) in 2014. The overall mean age was 48.9±14 years. There were 185(52%) females and 171(48%) males. Comparison of the data from 2 years showed no difference in gender, American Society of Anaesthesiologists level, grade of acute cholecystitis and frequency of use of empiric antibiotics (p>0.05 each). However, there was significantly less use of combination therapy (p=0.00) and metronidazole (p=0.00) in 2014than in 2009. Interval cholecystectomy was significantly less practised in 2014 (p=0.03) resulting in shorter hospital stay (p=0.00). Despite improvement in antibiotic usage practices, post-operative infection rates remained the same in both the groups (p=0.58).


Implementation of Tokyo Guidelines not only greatly influenced but also standardised the choice of antibiotics in patients without compromising the infective and surgical outcomes.

Publication (Name of Journal)

JPMA: Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association

Included in

Surgery Commons