Facial soft tissue thickness among three skeletal classes in adult Pakistani subjects

Document Type





ABSTRACT: Different facial reconstruction methods rely on the average facial soft tissue thickness values provided in previous studies. Facial soft tissue thickness is influenced by the age, sex, and ethnicity of the individual. The aim of the present study was to determine facial soft tissue thickness of adult Pakistani subjects with different facial morphology. A total of 166 subjects were categorized into three skeletal classes (based on convex, straight, or concave facial profile) employing the classification system used in orthodontics. Facial soft tissue thick- ness was determined at ten midline points on lateral cephalograms. Significant differences in facial soft tissue thickness were present at glabella, labrale superius, stomion, and labiomentale in males and at labrale superius, labrale inferius, labiomentale, and pogonion in females among dif- ferent skeletal classes. The current study suggests that the skull morphology-related variations in facial soft tissue thickness should be consid- ered during facial reconstruction to achieve accurate results.

Publication (Name of Journal)

J Forensic Sci.