Incidental metastatic mediastinal atypical carcinoid in a patient with parathyroid adenoma: a case report.

Zareen Kiran,, Aga Khan University
Asma Ahmed, Aga Khan University
Owais Rashid, Aga Khan University
Saira Fatima, Aga Khan University
Faizan Malik, Aga Khan University
Saulat H. Fatimi, Aga Khan University
Mubasher Ikram, Aga Khan University




Atypical carcinoid arising from the mediastinal tissue is a rare neuroendocrine tumor and an association with parathyroid adenoma is very unusual. We report an unusual case of atypical carcinoid of mediastinum with metastasis in a patient presenting with parathyroid adenoma, which is the first case to be reported from Pakistan.


A 51-year-old Pakistani man was seen in postoperative intensive care after right parathyroidectomy and mediastinal mass resection for the management of postoperative hypocalcaemia. He had a background history of dyspnea. Examination was unremarkable. Preoperative laboratory evaluation revealed a calcium level of 12.7 mg/dl, phosphate of 1.9 mg/dl, serum albumin of 4.8 g/dl, alkaline phosphate of 94 U/L, and serum intact parathyroid hormone level 413.8 pg/ml. A technetium-99m sestamibi parathyroid scan showed right parathyroid increased tracer uptake. Further workup revealed a large mediastinal mass which was diagnosed as atypical carcinoid after Tru-Cut biopsy. He underwent right-sided parathyroidectomy and resection of the mediastinal mass. The histopathology confirmed it to be a parathyroid adenoma and atypical carcinoid tumor of his mediastinum with metastasis in his lymph node and parathyroid gland. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy revealed a well-defined focus in his left hypochondriac region consistent with a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy-avid tumor. He was started on everolimus and planned for octreotide therapy.


We describe an incidental finding of atypical carcinoid of the mediastinum in a patient diagnosed as having parathyroid adenoma. Clinical manifestations of neuroendocrine syndromes are challenging. Some tumors cluster in a non-classic description with other common neoplasms. They rarely present in isolation, remain clinically silent, and need aggressive workup with the aid of imaging and histopathology.