Epidemiology and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma
A meta-analysis on the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in 27 881 hepatocellular carcinomas from 90 studies confirmed wide international variations. A predominance of HBsAg was found in hepatocellular carcinomas from most Asian, African and Latin American countries, but anti-HCV predominated in Europe, North America, Japan, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Egypt. Anti-HCV was found more often than HBsAg in Europe and the United States. Twenty-five years after having been licensed, HBV vaccination programmes are now carried out in 158 countries, but they have yet to reach many high-risk populations in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. In the absence of a vaccine, the prevention of HCV infection requires an integrated strategy (i.e., screening of blood donations, safe injection practices, and avoidance of unnecessary injections). (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
(2009). Epidemiology and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Letters, 286(1), 5-8.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_surg_surg/29