Document Type






Cardiovascular diseases continue to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world population. First open heart procedure was performed by Gibbon in 1953, since then many advancements have been introduced to the field of cardiac surgery. Minimally invasive techniques were introduced, which include minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), off-pump technique, minimally invasive valve surgery or transcatheter techniques to implant stentless or sutureless valves. The hybrid strategy to address coronary disease combines catheterisation procedures with standard surgical techniques. Cardiac imaging has also progressed to provide three-dimensional images of the heart, enabling surgeons to plan procedures with greater accuracy. Left ventricular assist devices can be used in patients suffering from cardiogenic shock or awaiting heart transplantation. Total artificial heart can be used for biventricular mechanical support. As technology becomes increasingly used for patient management, the future surgeon needs to be trained in minimally invasive surgical techniques.

Publication (Name of Journal)

JPMA: Journal of Pakistan Medical Association

Included in

Surgery Commons