Document Type



General Surgery; Emergency Medicine; Radiology


Introduction: Differences between appendicoliths associated with appendicitis and those found incidentally have not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of appendicoliths that are associated with acute appendicitis.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with appendicoliths identified on computed tomographic (CT) scan from January 2008 till December 2014 was conducted. Patients were divided into two group: appendicitis and appendicoliths (AA) and incidentally discovered appendicoliths (IA).
Results: Overall, 321 patients were included in the study. Of these, 103 (32%) patients were in the AA group while 218 (68%) patients were in the IA group. Both groups were similar in age and gender distribution. Significantly greater proportion of patients in the AA group had more than one appendicolith [AA vs. IA: 63 (62%) vs. 82 (38%), p < 0.001], appendicolith location at the base [AA vs. IA: 34 (33%) vs. 33 (15%), p < 0.001] and appendicolith diameter of 5 mm or more [AA vs. IA: 71 (69%) vs. 28 (13%), p < 0.001]. On multivariate analysis, more than one appendicolith [Odds ratio (OR): 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.4; p = 0.02] and diameter of 5 mm or more (OR: 13, 95% CI: 7.1-23.6; p < 0.001) were independently associated with acute appendicitis.
Conclusion: Multiple appendicoliths and appendicoliths larger than 5 mm are associated with acute appendicitis.

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.