Intraoperative cholangiography during cholecystectomy among hospitalized medicare beneficiaries with non-neoplastic biliary disease

Document Type



General Surgery


Background: Prior studies of Medicare beneficiaries with both neoplastic and non-neoplastic indications for cholecystectomy demonstrated a reduced risk of common bile duct (CBD) injury when intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was used. We sought to determine the association between IOC and CBD injury during inpatient cholecystectomy for non-neoplastic biliary disease and compare survival among those with or without CBD injury.
Methods: Retrospective study of patients ≥66 who underwent inpatient cholecystectomy (2005-2010) for gallstones, cholecystitis, cholangitis, or gallbladder obstruction. The association between IOC and CBD injury was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression and survival after cholecystectomy was analyzed using multivariable Cox regression.
Results: Among 472,367 patients who underwent cholecystectomy, 0.3% had a CBD injury. IOC was associated with increased CBD injury (adjusted OR 1.41[1.27-1.57]). CBD injury was associated with increased hazards of death (adjusted HR 1.37[1.25-1.51]).
Conclusions: IOC in patients with non-neoplastic biliary disease was associated with increased odds of CBD injury. This likely reflects its selective use in patients at higher risk of CBD injury or as a confirmatory test when an injury is suspected.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University

Publication (Name of Journal)

The American Journal of Surgery