Building community resilience: A scalable model for hemorrhage-control training at a mass gathering site, using the RE-AIM framework

Document Type



General Surgery


Background: In a decade, the US military reduced deaths from uncontrolled bleeding on the battlefield by 67%. This success, coupled with an increased incidence of mass shootings in the US, has led to multiple initiatives intent on translating hemorrhage-control readiness to the civilian sector. However, the best method to achieve widespread population-level hemorrhage-control readiness for civilians has not yet been elucidated. This study evaluates the implementation of American College of Surgeons Bleeding Control training at a National Football League stadium as a prospective model for general mass gathering site implementation.
Methods: The American College of Surgeons' Bleeding Control Basic layperson hemorrhage-control training was implemented at Gillette Stadium in Massachusetts. The five domains are as follows: reach (demographics of study participants), effectiveness (correct tourniquet application after intervention), adoption (investigator, leadership, and participant efforts for sustainability of intervention), implementation (course details), and maintenance (correct tourniquet application at retention testing at 3 to 9 months).
Results: A total of 562 employees were included in the study. Of those included employees, 58.7% reported having taken first-aid training and 17.3% reported having taken hemorrhage-control training. There was an increased mean likelihood to help (4.39 vs 4.09, P < .01) and comfort level to control hemorrhage (4.26 vs 3.60, P < .01) after training compared with before training, on a Likert scale (1-5). The stadium operations team located hemorrhage control kits with automatic external defibrillators, integrated layperson immediate-response awareness into its Web site, and developed a public safety announcement. The training, performed by physicians, nurses, and emergency medical technicians, consisted of a 30-minute lecture and a 30-minute hands-on skills-training course, with a class size of 24. The total number of sessions was 24.
Conclusion: Achieving initial hemorrhage-control readiness and maintenance at a mass gathering site through American College of Surgeons Bleeding Control training is feasible but requires significant commitment from training staff, site leadership, and financial resources.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University

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