Hemorrhage control training promotes resilience-associated traits in medical students

Document Type



General Surgery


Objective: Given rising rates of physician burnout, the potential for clinical skills training programs to develop and reinforce resilience-associated traits in medical students warrants investigation. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of a hemorrhage control training program on resilience-associated traits (role-clarity, self-efficacy, and empowerment) in medical students. A secondary objective was to examine the differential impact of additional hands-on skills training.
Design: This was a prospective study of medical students participating in an established hemorrhage control training program, utilizing pre-, mid-, and post-training questionnaires. The program included both an in-person lecture and hands-on skills training. Primary endpoints were self-reported increases in role clarity (when the hemorrhage control skills would and would not be applicable), self-efficacy (confidence in ability to use the skill), and empowerment (to act in a situation where the skill was needed).
Setting: Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Participants: One hundred and twenty-six Harvard Medical School students participated.
Results: There was a significant increase at each stage of training in self-reported role clarity about when to apply hemorrhage control skills (p < 0.01) and when not to apply them (p < 0.01); confidence in application of the skill (p < 0.01); as well as empowerment to apply the skill when appropriate (p < 0.01).
Conclusions: Hemorrhage control training, a first response-related clinical skills program, is a promising domain for development and reinforcement of resilience-associated traits in medical students, particularly when the program includes hands-on skills training. Providing experiential learning opportunities that are designed not only for skills-specific outcomes, but also to reinforce such resilience-associated traits as role-clarity, self-efficacy, and empowerment provides an essential integrated perspective.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Surgical Education