Delayed surgical therapy reduces mortality in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis
OBJECTIVE: To review the trends in management and analyze the factors influencing outcomes of acute necrotizing pancreatitis.
METHODS: It was a retrospective analytical study. All adult patients with computed tomography with proven necrotizing pancreatitis managed at the department of surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi were included in this study extending from January 1998 to January 2008. Outcome variables were hospital stay, complication rate and in-hospital mortality. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. For comparison, Pearson chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test and ANOVA were used, where applicable. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Of 1479 patients, 47 patients were included. Median age was 48 (range: 38-56) years with 31 (66%) males and 16 (34%) females. Overall out of 18 (38%) that underwent necrosectomy, 16 had infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis while the rest were negative. Computed Tomography and/or FNAC identified 18 infective acute necrotizing pancreatitis patients, 16 underwent necrosectomy, one patient expired without surgery and the other was managed conservatively. Enteral nutrition was widely used with rising trend of oral feeding from 2006 onwards. Complication rate was 63%. Overall mortality remained 9/47 (19.7%), where in infected ANP as well as in postoperative patients, mortality was 7/18 (38.9%). The patients with early pancreatic necrosectomy had prolonged hospital stay, more complications and statistically significant increase in in-hospital mortality.
CONCLUSION: Better outcomes were achieved in infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis with delayed pancreatic necrosectomy and the other contributing factor could be early enteral nutritional therapy.