Early rectal cancer management includes tumour stages TiS, T1 and some selected T2 lesions that undergo appropriate clinical pre-operatie evaluation. Local excision of these lesions with acceptable recurrence rate can be achieved through various transanal endoscopic techniques like transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and transanal minimal invasive surgery (TAMIS) that are superior to simple transanal excision (TAE). The current literature review was planned to present the oncological evaluation of local excision in the context of available evidence. An overview of perioperative adjuvant therapies employed along with local excision is presented, with an update on the latest trials.
JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
(2020). Management of early rectal cancer: Current practice and future. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 70(10), 1799-1806.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_mc_surg_gen/110