The Nairobi declaration 2023: A commitment to address deadly yet neglected fungal diseases in Africa

Document Type



Pathology (East Africa)


On May 30th and 31st, 2023, delegates representing various African subregions, together with global representatives from the International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM), the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM), the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Global Action for Fungal Infections (GAFFI), convened in Nairobi, Kenya under the aegis of the Pan African Mycology Working Group, a working group of ISHAM. The meeting objectives were, amongst others, to deliberate on a continental response to the World Health Organisation Fungal Priority Pathogen List and facilitate interaction between global and regional leaders. Country delegates and international speakers addressed Africa’s fungal disease burden; capacity for diagnosis and management; ongoing surveillance; knowledge gaps and trends in invasive fungal diseases such as Candida auris, mucormycosis, aspergillosis, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related mycoses; and current laboratory practice. During the technical sessions, expert panels deliberated on establishing and financing of national/regional surveillance networks for mycoses; establishing and sustaining African-led collaborations; expanding on existing laboratory and point-of-care diagnostic capacity as well as planning a mycology reference laboratory service and network in Africa. The meeting also highlighted successful African-led collaborations, capacity building, and clinical trial initiatives. The meeting conclusions informed the resolutions of the Nairobi Declaration calling for improved awareness; strong collaborations between clinical and laboratory teams across Africa; improved fungal disease surveillance within the continent; access to antifungals and diagnostics; and leveraging qualified human resources for mycology present within and outside Africa to facilitate trainings, collaborations, and exchanges.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Medical Mycology