Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication (Name of Journal)

Quality in education: Teaching and leadership in challenging times


Professional Development Centre, Karachi


In a school, a teacher, as a leader, interacts directly with the students to develop their cognition for a desired outcome. At the same time s/he also forms a caring relationship with them not only to guide them academically but also socially and spiritually. Students also have certain capacity for their own learning. This capacity to large extent influences by teacher’s role in the classroom. Hence three factors have major influence to shape effectiveness of a classroom. In the study reported in this paper, combinations of these factors were sought and presented in three dimensional models. Eight different combinations (models) emerged by considering extreme existence (+) or extinction (-) of the three factors in order to specify a particular leadership style for teacher leadership. In order to explore the implication of these different styles in a classroom, a list of eight most important aspects of a classroom were identified through literature and later on validated by experts and practitioners. The influence of the above three factors on these eight aspects were opined from experienced teachers and head teachers. Most of the teachers and head teachers opined that the presence of all the three factors is essential for an effective classroom.