The Marrakesh Call to Action: Grounding the Discourse of ‘Citizenship’

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‘Citizenship’ (muwāṭana) has come to take centre stage in discussions over the status of religious minorities in Muslim-majority contexts, and even interreligious dialogue. This article explores how the concept has been framed by discussions about the modern state over the past couple of centuries, its rise to prominence in the past couple of decades, and its still infrequent occurrence in religious discourse. By focusing on the framing of the concept at the convention of Marrakesh of 2016, and its consecration in the action points of the final Declaration, the article explores the profound ambiguities where considerable potential lies. Taking centre stage is, in and of itself, a remarkable achievement and indicative of a particular direction.

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