Exploring the assessment preferences of English Language Teachers of secondary school affiliated with the Karakoram International University Examination Board and The Aga Khan University Examination Board and across gender in Gilgit-Baltistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


One of the emerging components of quality teaching and learning of the contemporary era is classroom assessment which needs to be focused and explored from different perspectives. One of the perspectives could be teachers’ assessment preferences regarding classroom assessment practices (CAPs) which influence students’ learning. There is scarcity of literature available on classroom assessment preferences of secondary English language (EL) teachers generally in Pakistan and particularly in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB). The focus of this study is to explore the classroom assessment preferences of EL teachers across KIU-EB and AKU-EB affiliated secondary schools and across gender. The study has been conducted in the context of GB through survey research design. The respondents across school systems and gender were (n=118) secondary schools EL teachers from the four districts (Hunza, Gilgit, Ghizer, Skurdu) of GB. The major findings of the study are: the most preferred assessment preference of EL teachers across a KIU-EB and AKU-EB affiliated schools and across gender was inclination towards “assessment as learning” and the least preferred assessment preference was “assessment for instruction”. The results were not significant (p > 0.05) for all five constructs across KIU-EB and AKU-EB affiliated schools. The EL teachers of secondary schools affiliated with AKU-EB slightly preferred higher for two constructs: assessment for learning and assessment for instructions. It could be due to provision of resources, training for teachers and accountability matters within private schools and it could be due to paper pattern of AKU-EB, which might influence on CAPs of EL teachers. Whereas, the results were significant (p < 0.05) in assessment preferences of EL teachers across gender in two constructs (assessment for learning and assessment for instruction). This implied that male EL teachers were more likely to use assessment for learning and assessment for instruction as compared to their female counterparts. Interestingly, on average, male EL teachers scored higher mean values in all five constructs as compared to their female counterparts. While, female EL teachers need to improve their CAPs. This implied that female teachers seem lacking in the assessment skills; it could be less exposure to training programs to female due to restricted mobility issues, domestic tasks, family responsibilities and the contextual nuances. Hence, training on assessment practices and provision of resources for teachers are highly recommended to improve CAPs and to ensure their alignment with the endorsed assessment practices of National Curriculum for English Language Grades I-XII, (2006) and also alignment with assessment practices of examination boards. The generalizability of the findings may be limited because the findings are based on self-reported responses of EL teachers. Future studies can employ multiple methods of data collection such as classroom observation and interviews from both teachers and students to get more reliable findings.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library