Effects of teacher empowerment strategies on teachers' motivations: A phenomenological study in a private secondary school system Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Teacher empowerment emerged as a strategy for school reforms in the mid-1980s as a result of falling state of education standard in the USA. However, it is not given due importance nor is implemented in the developing countries because of the centralized education system. The decisions are made at the higher level and teachers' voice is left out from the curriculum development, policy formation and school management despite the fact that teachers are the main pillars in restructuring the school and student learning. A phenomenological study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan to explore the lived experiences of the principal, head teachers and teachers regarding the effects of teacher empowerment strategies on teachers' motivation. A qualitative inquiry was used to seek information from three private secondary schools which are working under one system. The sample size included one principal, three head teachers and twelve teachers who are holding some leadership positions in the schools. The process of data collection was done through semi- structured interviews, focused group discussions and document analysis. The study found that teacher empowerment is an important element in school improvement. The stakeholders (principal, head teachers, teachers) in the schools understand teacher empowerment as involvement in decision making, problem solving, taking and fulfilling their responsibilities in their schools. It was also found that the principal plays a crucial role in implementing teacher empowerment in schools while involving teachers in the schools' management. Empowerment builds the leadership skills and professional competencies of teachers when they are provided with opportunities to be part of the school management. Teacher empowerment also increases teachers' job satisfaction, teachers' self-efficacy and professionalism which becomes a motivating factor for them to stay and give their best in their profession. However, challenges were also faced by the principal and teachers in executing teacher empowerment such as lack of resources, disagreement in opinions, repetitive professional development trainings, domestic issues etc. The study recommended that policy makers, teacher educators and school leaders should promote teacher empowerment, so that their voices can be included in educational affairs. Also teachers networking should be extended so that they learn from each other and share their ideas to improve the process of teaching and learning.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library