Integrating the concepts of social justice in mathematics teaching in grade IX in a school located in Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


The National policy of Pakistan 2009 provides the vision for education in Pakistan that is, quality education being a means for recognizing the individuals’ potential for societal development. This vision needs to be actualised in classroom learning and teaching. In a way, mathematics for social justice can provide an opportunity to individuals to implement this vision in the classroom teaching of mathematics. This study, therefore, explored the teaching and learning processes of mathematics for social justice of Grade 9 students in a school of Karachi, Pakistan. To understand the processes, an exploratory action research was conducted in the qualitative paradigm. In the study, semi-structured interviews conducted from the students and the mathematics teacher, classroom observations, the reflective diary, and the analysis of students’ work were used as data collection tools. The study has three action research cycles which in turn have eight lessons on the topic of ratio and proportions, with the integration of wastage of food at the consumption level. The study has found out that mathematics for social justice requires using critical dialogues, critical questioning and creation of critical problem-posing questions. These elements create a learning environment that improves the mathematical and social justice education scenario. First, the use of dialogue opens up a useful discussion to analyse the social issue critically. Second, questioning explores the use of mathematical concepts in understanding the social issue. Third, problem-solving questions themselves provide an opportunity to students to apply mathematical knowledge and skills and enable them to ponder on social issues and critically apply their knowledge to seek opportunities for social justice. This study can help teacher and educators to use the pedagogy of mathematics for social justice in their classroom and explore other areas of mathematics for social justice in the Pakistani context.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library