Exploring teachers' perceptions and practices regarding formative assessment in a private school system in the Chitral District of Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This study aimed to explore the perceptions and practices of teachers regarding formative assessment (FA) in a private school system in the Chitral, district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Altogether 123 teachers participated in the study from 25 selected primary, middle and high schools. Stratified random sampling was employed for the selection of the schools and simple random sampling for the teachers from each school. Questionnaire and a classroom observation checklist were used as data collection tools. The research questionnaire was aimed to explore teachers’ perceptions associated with their understanding, practices, their opinions about the advantages of formative assessment both for the students and teachers, limitations of formative assessment and the advantages of formative assessment records. The observation checklist was administered to observe the integration of formative assessment techniques in classroom operations such as planning for the lessons, its presentation, teachers’ communication skills, evaluation, classroom activities and classroom displays. The questionnaire and classroom observation checklist were administered through direct administration by visiting the schools. The data was analyzed using SPSS 22 software to calculate the percentage of responses, mean and standard deviation. The data was tabulated after cleaning it in MS Excel. Parametric and non-parametric tests were employed for comparative analysis of responses of independent variables such as teachers’ gender, academic and professional qualification, teaching experience and participation in continuing professional development programs. The major findings of the study show that teachers have positive perceptions about formative assessment and stated that they have sound understanding of formative assessment and are competent enough to use these techniques during teaching and learning processes. It was evident from classroom observations that teachers were using formative assessment techniques efficiently; nevertheless the teachers depended on few techniques; most of the time they would use some techniques in all situations. In comparative analysis the findings of the study varied to a less extent across independent variables as a slight difference was found among the groups.

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