Social studies' teachers' perceptions and practices of peace education: An exploratory case study from Chitral

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Professional Development Centre, Karachi


All the formal and informal endeavors at intra and interpersonal, group or national level to promote conducive peace environment by bringing attitudinal change through imparting knowledge, skills and values regarding mutual coexistence, elimination of violence and promotion of a culture of peace come under the purview of peace education (PE). However, the dream of PE, developing and maintaining a culture of peace, has not yet materialized in Pakistan. Youth in Pakistan have not fully acquired the values, skills and practices to resolve conflicts and minimize violence. There are many socio cultural and political reasons, yet the most pressing is related to school/classroom practices of the teachers, curriculum, school environment and institutional policies. The focus of this study was to explore the perceptions and practices of teachers about PE using the case study method under the qualitative research paradigm. Data were collected through semi structured interviews, observations and document analysis, which were later on transcribed and analyzed. The major conclusion from the study is that peace is contextual and different people perceive it differently. Hence, strategies used in PE also vary accordingly. That is the reason why teachers are using different strategies to teach for peace. Moreover, curriculum, co-curricular activities and the school environment help teachers to impart the skills and values related to peace. Adding to this, peace pedagogy is essential in making the content fruitful. However, teachers believe that certain topics in the curriculum and unbridled access to media obstruct the objective of attitudinal change in favour of peace. The study has some implications for teachers and schools. Unless teachers build their pedagogy on a peace principle, the desired objective even in the presence of useful content, cannot be achieved. Moreover, peaceful school environment and eliminating stereotyped contents from the curriculum can help in meeting the objectives.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library