Copying with private tuitions for higher secondary exams : Dilemma of students and their parents living in Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Professional Development Centre, Karachi


Over the past few decades Pakistan has witnessed an upsurge in the privitisation of education. With education turning into an enterprise a dominant sector promoting and endorsing the trend is that of private tuition centres. Appearing as the third most important and rapidly emerging education sector in the country, students and their parents are flabbergasted and forced to utilize this avenue in pursuit of getting high grades. This trend intensifies further in higher classes when the students have to appear in higher secondary exams. The results of these exams Are the defining factor to secure admissions into reputable professional universities. Thus the Stakes are too high and due to the blatant competition parents face a dilemma and have no alternative but to select the best tutors for their children at any cost. This research brings forward the point of view and coping techniques of parents as well as students who have to manage various factors to ensure private tuitions. Phenomenology was used as the research design to get in depth information of the lived experiences of the participants. The key findings revealed that students and parents are under an acute pressure during these crucial years of the academic life. They have to manage finances, resources and have to make multiple adjustments and compromises to manage private tuitions. It is the need of the hour that concrete steps and comprehensive plans must be devised and implemented by the policy makers to regulate the private education sector in the country that would not only lessen disparities but also reduce pressure on students and their parents especially in higher classes.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library