Exploring perceptions and practices of teachers in supporting educational needs of Differently Abled Children (DAC) in a mainstream school of Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Professional Development Centre, Karachi


This small-scale case study explores perceptions and practices of middle school teachers regarding inclusion of Differently Abled Children (DAC) in a private urban mainstream school in Karachi. The purpose of the study was to understand how perceptions of teachers influence their teaching learning practices in their classrooms. Within the qualitative research design, the data was mainly collected through semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. Furthermore, a thematic analysis approach was used to make sense of the data and draw conclusions. The study revealed that teachers’ perceive that inclusion of DAC particularly those who have learning and behavioral difficulties should be included in the main stream classrooms. It was witnessed that DAC of those teachers were engaged in various curricular and co-curricular activities such as group and peer work, sports and participation in parents’ day activities. It was found that DAC in their classes learn far better than working in isolation. The teachers deliberately engaged all students to develop sense of responsibility such as sharing and caring attitude with peers and DAC and uphold such attitudes in their home environment. However, it was found that these teachers were concerned to accommodate children with severe disabilities in their regular classes due to lack of infrastructure, rehabilitations facilities at school, availability of resources and their own capacity to deal with such students which was currently detrimental for DAC. Nevertheless, it was learnt due to personal commitment of teachers, DAC have flourished and have met expectations of teachers and parents in terms of improved writing, reading and mathematical skills and have also developed social skills. The study concluded that parental involvement particularly parents of DAC in school events and teachers’ professional development with regard to their educational needs is essential for fulfilling the commitment of education for all.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library