Manifestations of global education in National Curriculum of Pakistan Studies : A case study of developing students' global perspectives in Chitral

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Professional Development Centre, Karachi


Global education has emerged as a new educational response to the challenges and conditions of globalisation. Global education, however, has led to an on-going and vigorous debate among global scholars. Global education scholars have criticised nation-centric curricular and educational approaches of countries across the world for inadequately preparing students for the twenty-first century. The critical and post-colonial global scholars have also offered critique to global education for its failure to address economic inequity, dependency, structural violence, and the hegemonic processes of neoliberal globalisation (Kapoor, 2009 and Chana, 2011). Critique further indicates global education has failed to provide a multi-perspectival theoretical framework that truly represents views of the world’s diverse societies, nations and cultures (Kapoor, 2014 and Merryfield, 2009). The purpose of this study is to explore global education dimensions in the national curriculum of Pakistan Studies (class X-XII) for developing students’ global perspectives in schools.

This research drawing upon colonial and post-colonial theoretical frameworks builds on the theoretical framework of one worldism (Pike and Selby, 2001), orientalism (Said, 1978), coloniality of power (Mignolo, 2000 and Quijano, 2000)) and southern theory (Connell, 2007). Employing two theoretical perspectives, this research analyses global education dimensions and practices in the national curriculum of Pakistan Studies, with specific reference to ethnocentric and Western-centric theoretical critiques.

A case study method based on the interpretive approach was used to study Pakistan Studies curriculum practices of global education in two schools (one public and one private) in Chitral. The study employed qualitative data gathering strategies, particularly document analyses, semi-structured and open-ended interviews, classroom observations of participant teachers, and focused group discussions with students. The study utilised inductive data analysis technique to develop core categories in terms of dimensions of global education for developing students’ global perspectives.

The research finds that the curriculum subject matter is superficially incorporates elements of cross-cultural awareness, perspective consciousness, world problems and local solutions, and global interconnections and interdependence for developing students’ global perspectives. The teachers’ pedagogies, on the one hand, construct/reconstruct and reinforce Western knowledge and promote Western-centric worldviews. On the other hand, some teachers introduce knowledge from Islamic and local traditions as a post-colonial resistance to the hegemony of Western knowledge. The Pakistan Studies curriculum provides perspectives within colonial and post-colonial frameworks rather than providing multiple perspectives on topical issues. The national curriculum over-emphasises economic and political global interdependence and interconnection, but ignores economic dependency, violence, and various forms of human rights violations. Thestudy finds that the examination-bound teaching culture in schools, teachers’ limited repertoire of world knowledge and globalisation, limited utilisation of resources, and schools’ participation in national-global programmes are factors that affect Pakistan Studies curriculum practices of global education.

Lastly, the study finds that the four-dimensional theoretical framework of global education is heavily embedded in the Western-centric approaches of global education with overemphasis on interdependence of economic and political systems in human rights context. The framework lacks analysis of dependencies and structural violence of world economic, cultural and political systems. Hence, a seven-dimensional post-colonial global education theoretical framework has been proposed for teaching Pakistan Studies to develop students’ global perspectives.

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