An investigation into the role of scouting as non-formal education in youth development in Karachi, Pakistan : A mixed methods study

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Professional Development Centre, Karachi


For many decades, non-formal education has been contributing towards lifelong learning and development of youth worldwide. Unfortunately, despite its benefits, the role of non-formal education has mostly remained unrecognized due to lack of research and poor information base resulting in ignoring of this complementary education provider. For this purpose, this study aimed to investigate and explore the role of scouting as non-formal education in youth development in Karachi, Pakistan. The study used sequential explanatory design of the mixed methods, which consisted of first phase of quantitative data collection followed by a qualitative data collection phase. For quantitative phase, stratified random sampling was used to ensure proper representation for the purpose of generalization. A sample of 266 young individuals aged 18-25 years, and 50 adult leaders aged 26 and above participated in quantitative data collection through a self-administered written questionnaire. For qualitative phase, the researcher selected two young individuals based on criterion sampling and two adult leaders based on expert sampling to collect data through semi-structured interviews along with triangulation using document analysis.

Both phases were carried out separately; however, findings of the quantitative phase were used to design data collection instruments of qualitative phase to integrate the two methods. The dissertation presents findings of the two phases in separate chapters; however, the final chapter presents an integrated version of both findings. Particularly, the study identified scouting’s role in social, skills, and character development as three dimensions of the youth development while a significant majority of the participants indicated positive effect of scouting on their overall development. Findings from this study concluded a positive role of scouting as non-formal education in development of young individuals in Karachi, Pakistan. The study recommends introduction of scouting in schools considering its benefits on not only individuals, but the society as well.

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