Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Medicine (MMed)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Andrew Gachii

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Rodney Adam


Pathology (East Africa)


Introduction: Anthropometry has gained popularity over the years as a reliable method to determine gender. In forensic investigation, there are cases where gender cannot be readily determined using anatomy such as in mass casualty disasters with dismemberment and commingling of limbs. Kenyan descriptive data of foot dimensions is lacking as are formulae for estimating gender. Proven differences in foot dimensions across races prevent application of formula obtained using different populations necessitating generation of local data and formulae.

Objectives: To describe the foot lengths, breaths and navicular heights of a representative adult Kenyan population, both male and female, and derive from these a formula to estimate gender.

Material and Methods: Foot lengths, breadths and navicular heights were taken using callipers from a representative adult Kenyan population. These measurements were then subsequently used to derive a formula for determining gender by use of discriminant function analysis.

Results: Mean foot lengths were 271.60 mm and 272.32 mm for men and 235.16 mm and 234.75 mm for women, right and left respectively. Mean foot breadths were

103.77 mm and 102.72 mm for men and for 88.67 mm and 88.69 mm women, right and left respectively. Foot navicular heights were 71.06 mm and 70.80 mm for men and 61.54 mm and 62.55 mm for women, right and left respectively.

T-tests were used to compare these means across gender, all differences were statistically significant, p≤0.00001.

A formula to estimate gender via discriminant function analysis was obtained.

The formula correctly determined gender in 100% of the cases within this study.

Conclusion: Formulae developed from foot dimensions can be used to predict gender in forensic investigations.