Implementing indirect error correction strategy to enhance grade 8 ESL learners' written compositions

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Professional Development Centre, Karachi


Error feedback is perhaps the most investigated area by ESL researchers. However, there seemed a dearth of studies on ways of implementing indirect error feedback in ESL classrooms to improve students' written compositions in context. Therefore, the aim of the study was to implement indirect error feedback on ESL learners' written compositions through the use of codes, organizing error conferences and maintaining grammar logs. The study utilized the action research design within the qualitative paradigm. It used a sample of 3 students and an ESL teacher of an elementary class in a private secondary school in GB. Data collected from document analysis, classroom observations, informal conversations, students' composition samples and interviews with the subject teacher and students formed the basis of reflections and analysis. Thus, the study looked for ways on how to synthesize indirect feedback activities according to the contextual needs. The findings of the study showed that implementing indirect error feedback requires well developed theoretical and pedagogical understanding of using indirect error correction strategy to improve the quality of learners' written compositions. Furthermore, the data indicated that students found indirect error correction fruitful as it ensured their involvement in correcting their own errors. It was also revealed that the use of these strategies led to improve quality of learners' written compositions by increasing their motivation and confidence in self-correction. The supports the argument made on Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis and social constructive theory that the amount of attention an ESL learner is paying to the form focused feedback given by a more competent person or peers may influence the production of L2 to some degree. This study is significant in guiding ESL teachers and teacher educators in Pakistan to reflect and modify their error correction methods according to learners' needs. It also provides deep insights to future researchers to study indirect error correction in other contexts as well.

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