Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Medicine (MMed)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Majid S Twahir

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Mohammed S Abdullah

Third Supervisor/Advisor

James O Jowi


Internal Medicine (East Africa)


Aim: To study the influence of HIV infection on the development of contrast induced nephropathy in patients receiving radio contrast material

Design: Prospective cohort study

Patients and setting:One hundred and twenty five (125) HIV positive patients and one hundred and fifty five (155) HIV negative patients selected from in and out patient departments of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi and Aga Khan Hospitals in Mombasa and Kisumu, were evaluated for the study between August 2008 and August 2009.

Methodology: Eligible patients undergoing radiological evaluation requiring the use of radio contrast material were consecutively recruited for the study after which their HIV status was determined. A serum creatinine was determined before and 48 hours after administration of radio contrast material. The percentage change between the two values was calculated for each patient. Analysis was then performed to determine the relative risk of development of Contrast Induced Nephropathy for the HIV positive arm in relation to the HIV negative arm

Results: The incidence of contrast induced nephropathy was 12% in the HIV positive group and 14.2% in the HIV negative group (p=0.59) resulting in a non significant relative risk of 0.85 (95 % C.I: 0.458, 1.560).

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that HIV infection does not significantly influence the development of contrast induced nephropathy.