Techniques for developing process writing skills in English as Second Language (ESL) classrooms

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Teaching and learning English revolves around traditional methods in Pakistan. In most classes teachers are the main source of knowledge. They just pour knowledge into their students' heads. Students are passive receivers of language input provided by teachers. Teachers teach different things in their language classes. For example, vocabulary, composition, poetry, prose and the four language skills which are reading, writing, speaking and listening. Most of the time they emphasise on reading and writing but they do not provide opportunities for practicing language to their students. For example, writing classes are not effective for students. Teachers do not allow students to select topics according to their own interest. They just provide topics to the students blindly or give stereo typed topics that students have rote learnt and then write for e. g. my car, my mother and my cat. The same topics are given in the examination every year. So they do not go beyond those topics. Due to these reasons teachers are not able to enhance the students writing skills. From the beginning I was interested in knowing why students are deprived of language learning opportunities which would enable them to write independently in real life situations. Due to my interest and the apparent importance of written English as a second language (ESL), I conducted this study to understand how teachers could facilitate its development in our context. This study shows that teachers need to do collaborative work to enhance their teaching skills. For example, they can plan together, discuss and give constructive feedback to each other which would help them to enhance their teaching skills. They need opportunities and encouragement to enhance their teaching of writing skills. From this study I learnt that ESL teachers need an environment in the school where they can work collaboratively. Moreover, it is imperative that teachers develop their own resources and competence in English language teaching.

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