Leading with a difference: Facilitating inclusive practices in a private school in Karachi, a case study

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


The study explores the processes used by a school principal to facilitate inclusive practices. In order for inclusion to prevail in the school, the culture of the school must also reflect values that are consistent with the humanitarian principles and embedded within the concept of inclusive education. The principal being the moral authority in the school has a very influential role towards fostering attitudes and values of inclusion. The principal is the key player in inculcating attitudinal, organizational and instructional change in order to cultivate successful inclusion. The principal’s expectations from the school community in implementing inclusive practices and values and beliefs about including all children are predictors of effective and more sustainable inclusion. The goal of this research was to understand these processes employed by a school principal. This was done by using a case study method, to get an in-depth understanding about the processes used by the school principal in facilitating inclusive practices for student in the school. Data were collected by conducting semi-structured interviews of the principal, curriculum coordinators, four teachers, two typical children, two children with special needs and two parents of special need children. Observations were done of the school environment, classroom teaching and other co-curricular activities. School documents were also reviewed. The findings generated by analyzing the data suggest that the Principals’ role in developing and facilitating inclusive practices are a reflection of the leadership style she enacts in school. The role is indicative of her values, beliefs and preferences. Through building positive relationships amongst the school community, nurturing a culture of respect and sharing leadership practices, the \Principal has created a strong sense of trust and care and respect for all people in the school. There is also a sense of commitment among the school community to make a difference. The findings provide guidelines for others in the field, in regards to how and what changes, in philosophies, school ethos, beliefs, can lead towards a more inclusive school setting.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library