Exploring the perceptions and practices of district officers education elementary (DOEEs) regarding effective primary schools in one of the districts of Sindh, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This research study aims to explore the perceptions and practices of District Officers Education Elementary (DOEEs) regarding effective primary schools in one of the districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The focus of the research study was primarily to identify as to what are the perceptions and practices of DOEEs about effective primary schools. The research study was conducted in the context of rural Sindh through a case study approach within the qualitative research paradigm. The research study shows that there are so many hindering and helping factors for DOEEs in exercising their powers. The data shows that though the district education system is running under the same management, but the ground realities regarding effective schools are very different in urban and rural schools. Urban schools run on double shift bases with more teachers and less enrollment of students; whereas, rural schools run on single shift basis, with a very high enrollment rate and minimum number of teachers, or only one teacher for all the classes. Furthermore, the interference of political persons and teachers union are the major factors that hinder the DOEEs in exercising their roles and responsibilities effectively for running the schools efficiently. Other common hindering factors include the lack of basic facilities or their poor condition (teaching material, drinking water, functional washrooms, shortage of teachers, etcetera) and very low budget (Rupees 20,000/= for three years per primary school) to meet the regular expenses of the schools. The helping factor for DOEEs is, there is a well-organised administration structure, which is helpful in the smooth running of the schools in the district. The findings of the research study will be helpful to the existing DOEEs and of the future ones in exercising their powers. The research study will also provide a potential resource for future researchers to explore more about the different aspects of how educational leadership becomes an effective method in managing the quality of education in their jurisdictions.

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