Gender relationships in village gayal: An exploration of unexplored

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


The efforts to explore the perceptions about contribution in daily chores and gender education involve varied approaches, theories, and methods; the Moser's "triple role theory" and Kabeer's "social relationship approach" are two of them. Qualitative paradigm was used for in-depth exploration. Semi-structured interview, focus group discussions and individual follow-up discussions were the main data collection methods. Four groups participated in the research study. Two groups of married couples (3 women and 2 men) participated in semi-structured interview. A focus group discussion was held with the other two groups (5 women and 5 men) of which one was female and the other male. The study found that women's share is muckle in agriculture sector and that they are mostly responsible for poultry and livestock-related chores. There is equal share of both male and female in fuel collection. Men have complete control over education, wage labouring, and timber. In spite of the critical share of women, their contribution was not considered as paid work. Indeed, the study found that women take up opportunities for paid work only in agriculture limiting them to work within their villages. The study found that during winter, almost all families totally depend on women's earning and men go to the village pavilion, resorts, or mosque and return only for meals. The study also found that a woman cannot go to meet with her family and friends without permission of her husband. Man has complete control on financial transaction of every type of object. The findings of the study revealed very little difference among the perceptions of males and females about girls' education; however, there was a significant difference in perceptions about contribution in everyday life. Similarly, a little difference was found between literate and illiterate people's perceptions about girls' education; and surprisingly, there were the same perceptions about boys' education. Participants had specified different objectives for Islamic and non-Islamic education by describing that non-Islamic education is only for earning money in this world and Islamic education is a source of reward hereafter.

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