Implementing cooperative learning in classrooms in Pakistan: Problems and possibilities

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This study sets out to answer three questions: 1. What factors hinder or facilitate the implementation of cooperative learning in schools in Pakistan? 2. What process is involved in teachers integrating cooperative learning into their existing repertoire? 3. What student outcomes result from teachers using cooperative learning in their classrooms? The study was conducted in a private school in Karachi. Four teachers - two primary and two secondary participated in the study. The Johnson & Johnson "Learning Together" model of cooperative learning was the instructional strategy implemented and coaching was used to help teachers internalize the instructional change. The study revealed that, besides the problems that could occur with the implementation of any new instructional strategy, there are obstacles to the implementation of cooperative learning that are peculiar to the strategy itself because they come in conflict with teachers' beliefs, values and attitudes about teaching and learning. It is argued that unless researchers attend to such beliefs and the educational practices that are shaped by them, they will be stymied in their attempts to implement cooperative learning. The study further reveals coaching as probably the most critical support process required for teachers to internalize instructional change, that expert coaching may be necessary during implementation and that considerable infrastructural modifications are necessary to embed peer coaching in the school culture. Positive changes were noted by teachers and students alike in such things as the students' understanding of subject matter, interpersonal relationships and students' self-esteem and self-confidence.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library