Exploring school-based decision making processes for school improvement in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


School-based decision making is an important area to be explored for greater involvement of the key stakeholders such as, head teacher, teachers, parents and students in the current decentralization policy movement, aiming to improve top-down bureaucratic system of educational management. In this regard local school governance has been proposed as a method to decentralize and de-bureaucratize schools and to promote shared decision-making within schools (Brown, 2004). The purpose of this study was to explore school-based decision-making processes and how these processes influence on curriculum enrichment, teacher professional development and pedagogy which lead to school improvement in the context of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The study focused on exploring perceptions and practices of head teacher, teachers, parents and students in one of the district of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. Within qualitative case study approach the data was gathered through questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, focused group discussions, observations and document review to ensure the validity of the data. Thematic analysis approach was used to segregate the data. The study identified, structured, and processes in school through which decision-making was shared among stakeholders. It was found that the SBDM processes had greater influence on curriculum enrichment and teacher professional development and pedagogy which are the core features of school improvement. Finding showed that teachers have freedom to select content, teaching strategies, students' classroom assessment and classroom management which are the core features of enhanced leads to enhance students' performance. The study indicates that participatory decision- making, focusing on curriculum enrichment, teacher professional development and pedagogy has led school towards moving school. The culture of conducting action research, using library books, conducting in-school professional development sessions for teachers and organizing different co-curricular activities in order to build teachers' capacity and students' improved learning outcomes was witnessed in the school. The study recommends that greater autonomy to school leaders in decision-making makes the schools effective and efficient.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library