The possibilities and challenges of introducing, implementing, and sustaining school based teacher development programme

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges and possibilities in introducing, implementing and sustaining School Based Teacher Development (SBTD). It was a qualitative case study carried out in a private school in Karachi, which has already initiated, implemented and continued SBTD for the last eight years. Data were collected through interviews and observations, complemented by other relevant documentations. The participants were the principal of the school, who supervised the whole process, the headteachers for the secondary and primary section, who previously worked as PDTs, two pool heads and four teachers. The findings reveal that a school is a complex social setting and, therefore, initiating SBTD needs a thorough study of the school, so that the individuals involved in SBTD can prioritize the needs of the school and initiate change with a focus. For successful initiation of SBTD, a school requires to have skilled and knowledgeable human resources to facilitate the process. It is apparent from the data that an effective planning process involves the stakeholders, because when a plan is developed with shared goals and objectives then it facilitates the implementation and continuation process. Teacher empowerment is crucial in implementing SBTD, and the best way is creating opportunities in the school, which can encourage teachers to share their ideas and learn from each other. The model that the case study school used to establish SBTD is an evolving model, which started with the mentoring of two teachers by a PDT, but gradually, expanded as more PDTs and VTs joined the school after the completion of their courses. The findings show that to sustain SBTD the school provides a platform to the individuals involved in SBTD, with time allocation and necessary resources, both human and material. The study shows that possibility of introducing, implementing' and sustaining SBTD greatly depends on the leadership styles practiced in the school and the school's culture, i.e. how supportive they are with regard to SBTD activities. This study explores some challenges in the process of SBTD, such as lack of time, heavy workload, lack of adequate facilitation for all the teachers in the school and so on. Therefore, it suggests development of a long-term plan for SBTD and then short term plans with specific objectives, so that the process can start at a small level, moving systematically towards the attainment of the long-term objectives.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library