Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Executive Masters in Media Leadership and Innovation (EMMLI)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Prof. George Nyabuga


Graduate School of Media and Communications


Disinformation poses an increasing threat to the integrity of electoral processes. This research endeavoured to design a fact-checking model that can be used in an electoral cycle in Kenya. Through interviews and document analysis, the study first sought to analyze the efficacy and challenges of the strategies that media organizations in Kenya used to fact-check digital content during the August 2022 elections. The critical examination of the framework used by the African Infodemic Response Alliance informed the development of an electoral fact-checking model. The study found that the strategies that the media organizations used to verify online information in the elections such as capacity building, creating fact-checking teams, additional reporters and editors and strategic partnerships were inefficient and inadequate in addressing the challenges of disinformation. The underlying factors that contributed to the inefficiencies were largely due to the lack of collaboration in the media ecosystem and other election stakeholders, a reactive approach to fact-checking and limited media literacy campaigns. The overarching conclusion of the study was that a multi-sectoral, multi-pronged approach could be more effective in countering online electoral disinformation in Kenya. This study recommends that a coalition of election stakeholders including the media, fact-checkers, the election management body, technology and content platform firms, civil society, government and non-governmental organizations be created as the vehicle to coordinate and execute anti-disinformation strategies. This capstone project produced a framework that contains four key pillars: Collaboration through a coalition, a social-media-first strategy, data-driven decision-making and combining prebunking, debunking and media literacy campaigns. This research contributes to the field by offering a robust and adaptable framework for electoral fact-checking, emphasizing structured multi-sectoral, collaboration. The findings provide valuable insights for policymakers, fact-checking organizations, technology platforms, and electoral authorities seeking to fortify the information ecosystem during crucial electoral events.