Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Jane Rarieya


Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


Digital literacy has become a prerequisite in today’s learning due to the much-needed technological skills required in the 21st century for academic achievements, career development, and daily living. With the introduction of the Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) in Kenya, studies have shown that teachers received limited in-service induction on CBC, raising questions on how teachers are developing learners’ digital literacy competencies (LDLC), yet little has been done to enhance teachers’ understanding of how this specific competence ‘digital literacy’ should be developed. This study investigated how primary school teachers are developing lower primary school LDLC. The study employed a qualitative approach that adopted a case study design. Data collection methods used were; face-to-face interviews, observation and document analysis. The study was conducted in Mtwapa, Kilifi County, where six participants were involved. These participants were lower primary school teachers, teaching from grade one to grade three. Findings showed that various approaches were used to develop LDLC, namely, the use of digital games, grouping of learners, parental involvement, use of individualized tasks and use of videos. Development of LDLC was facilitated by teacher professional development from a non-governmental organization, teacher commitment to teaching, support from the school head teacher, possession of personal digital devices and collaboration among teachers. Competencies developed included learners’ ability to access information, retrieve, use and play games for learning purposes. However, challenging factors such as inadequate digital infrastructure, lack of training and teacher incompetence in digital literacy, lack of teachers’ assessment skills, lack of continuous teacher professional development, high teacher workload and limited access to digital devices from the school computer laboratory affected effective development of digital literacy competencies among learners. Benefits attributed to the approaches teachers used included; the enhanced ability of learners to manipulate digital devices, enhanced understanding of concepts, ability to answer questions and raising of learners’ interest to learn more. The study recommends the need to have adequate and accessible digital devices in schools, adequate teacher training on digital literacy development, continuous teacher professional development and employment of enough trained teachers. The study further recommends further research be done with a bigger population to give a national view of how teachers in primary schools are developing LDLC. This will inform relevant bodies for policy and practice.