Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Digital Journalism (MADJ)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Lydia Ouma Radoli

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Joyce Omwoha


Graduate School of Media and Communications


Amidst the ever-evolving landscape of digital media's impact on democracy, this study explored the nuanced relationship between X and participatory democracy in Rwanda. Anchored on the Theory of Public Sphere and New Media Theory, this research shed light on the multifaceted interactions between citizens and politicians on X in Rwanda. By quantifying the interactions between politicians and citizens, finding out whether accountability mechanisms exist on the platform, and citizen-driven concerns; the study aimed to offer a comprehensive understanding of X's role in promoting participatory democracy in Rwanda. Situated within the Rwandan political context, this study gains significance as it navigates the unexplored ground of X's role in democratic practices within a country with a complex political history. The emergence of X as a platform for official communication and citizen engagement in Rwanda underscores the urgency of assessing its contribution to accountability and discourse within a rapidly evolving political landscape. Employing the quantitative content analysis method, this research examined the frequency of interactions and recurring concerns that emerge from citizen-politician interactions. The quantitative approach enabled a nuanced exploration of the issues that occupy the center of political accountability discourse. Findings revealed that politicians engage either frequently or occasionally on X in interactions that gives citizens the capability to hold them accountable in shaping citizens’ priorities. The study also found that various subjects are discussed on X in Rwanda, where politics and social interactions take the lead. By synthesizing the perspectives of the Theory of Public Sphere and New Media Theory, this research offers practical insights for policymakers and digital media practitioners seeking to enhance democratic engagement.