Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Digital Journalism (MADJ)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Mr. David Aduda


Graduate School of Media and Communications


The media can mould public perspectives and sway voters toward a specific candidate or political faction. This study aimed to analyse the print media framing of news on Kenya’s presidential campaigns in the run-up to the 2022 General Election. Specifically, the study sought to find out the framing of messages on the four presidential candidates ahead of the 2022 General Election, the extent of print media coverage of the four presidential aspirants during the presentation of their candidatures and factors that influenced the framing of news on presidential candidates by the print media ahead of Kenya’s 2022 General Election. The concurrent research approach used the agenda-setting and framing theory, exploiting a mixed methods approach. The target population consisted of 62 articles on July 2022 to August 9th, 2022. The study also interviewed 3 reporters and 2 editors from each newspaper. The study used a coding sheet and interview guides as the main tools. The data analysis was carried out using frequencies and percentages for quantitative data and thematic analysis for qualitative data. The study found that most articles in the coverage used horse-race frames representing 35.5%, and thematic framing (30.6%). The Daily Nation demonstrated a higher commitment to impartial coverage at

58.1%. In contrast, The Standard exhibited a lower proportion of impartial coverage at 41.9%. The framing of news during Kenya’s 2022 General Election by print media was influenced by high cost of living, corruption, promises of economic transformation, ownership affiliations, advertiser pressures, and individual reporter biases. The study concludes that there were instances of impartial and biased reporting for both newspapers. It is recommended that media outlets prioritize impartial reporting to ensure a balanced portrayal of electoral events and candidates, fostering a more informed public discourse, particularly during critical national events like elections.