Developing oral English proficiency of ESL learners through formative assessment at a government school on Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Fozia Parveen

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Nasima Shakeel


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This study aims to investigate how formative assessment techniques can be used to develop the English Oral Proficiency (E.O.P.) of grade 8 English as a Second Language (ESL) students. This investigation was carried out after finding gaps in existing assessment methods, lack of confidence with mechanical errors in E.O.P., and observing a lack of focus on oral proficiency in the research context. Applying action research methodology, the study was carried out in a public school in Gilgit-Baltistan among six students (n=6) selected through purposive sampling. The study highlights the significance of formative assessment techniques like Picture Storytelling, Role-Play, and Presentations in improving E.O.P. for participants. Students felt more at ease and engaged when using the Picture Storytelling technique, which uses visual prompts to create a comfortable environment for them to interact in the English language. Students were helped in simulated scenarios through role-playing exercises, which supported their speaking abilities and a deeper understanding of language usage. Furthermore, giving presentations turned out to be transformational, greatly improving students' articulation abilities and giving them a sense of control over their language skills. Through the improvement of interactivity, the promotion of reflective learning, and the reduction of shyness, these strategies helped students develop into confident communicators.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library