Exploring efficacy of the CPA approach in improving grade-VII students' achievement in Algebra

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Nusrat Fatima Rizvi


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This quantitative study investigates the effectiveness of the Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract (CPA) approach in improving the algebraic achievement of Grade VII students in two community-based schools in Karachi. Employing a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design, a total of 52 Grade VII students participated from both schools, with 25 students in the experimental group exposed to the CPA-based instructions and 27 students in the control group receiving conventional algebra instruction.
The study utilized an Algebraic Achievement Test (AAT) as the primary data collection tool developed and validated as part of the study. Prior to the intervention, a pre-test was conducted to ensure equivalent performance across the groups. Following this, the experimental group received instruction using the CPA-based approach, while the control group continued with conventional teaching methods. After the intervention, a post-test was administered to assess the impact of the CPA approach on algebraic achievement.
The results indicated that the CPA approach had a significant positive effect on students' algebraic performance. In the post-test, the experimental group outperformed the control group on overall AAT, its three content level constructs, and three cognitive domains. This demonstrates the efficacy of the CPA approach in enhancing algebraic understanding. These findings underscore the potential of the CPA approach as a pedagogical method for improving algebra education in Grade VII.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library